JAIC 2002, Volume 41, Number 3, Article 5 (pp. 269 to 278)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 2002, Volume 41, Number 3, Article 5 (pp. 269 to 278)

ANALYSIS OF GYPSUM-CONTAINING LIME MORTARS: POSSIBLE ERRORS DUE TO THE USE OF DIFFERENT DRYING CONDITIONS

A. ELENA CHAROLA, & SILVIA A. CENTENO



APPENDIX


APPENDIX

Flowchart of the three main experimental protocols used. Symbols (* or **) indicate subsequent treatment listed below.

Table . Appendix Flowchart


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Michel Dupas, recently retired from the Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique–Koninklijk Instituut voor her Kunstpatrimonium (IRPA-KIK), Brussels, for his thorough revision of the paper and his valuable comments. Also to be thanked for valuable comments and suggestions to improve the text are Dr. Margaret Thomson, Chemical Lime, Boulder City, Nev.; Dr. Eddy DeWitte, IRPA-KIK, Brussels, Belgium; and Dr. Michael Steiger, Universität Hamburg, Germany.



LIST OF SUPPLIERS

Drierite

Fisher Scientific, www.fischersci.com



REFERENCES

Callebaut, K., W.Viaene, K.Van Balen, and R.Otthenburgs. 1999. Petrographical, mineralogical and chemical investigation of 17th and 19th century lime mortars in the St.-Michael's Church (Leuven, Belgium). International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and Monuments6(5):523–42.

Charola, A. E., and J.Weber. 1992. The hydrationdehydration mechanism of sodium sulphate. In 7th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J. DelgadoRodrigues et al. Lisbon: Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. 581–90.

Deer, W. A., R. A.Howie, and J.Zussman. 1975. Rockforming minerals, vol. 5. London: Longman. 205–11.

Dupas, M.2001. Personal communication. Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique, Brussels, Belgium.

Macdonald, G. J. F.1953. Anhydrite-gypsum equilibrium relations. American Journal of Science251:884–98.

Mehlmann, M.1993. Bestimmung von chemischmineralogischen Kennwerte sowie Untersuchungsmethoden. Chap. 3, pt. A. In Mörtel und Steinergänzungsstoffe in der Denkmalpflege,ed. D.Knöfel and P.Schubert. Special issue of the BMT-Verbundforschung zur Denkmalpflege. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 39–53.

NORMAL. 1988. Composizione chimica dei materiali lapidei. Raccomandazioni NORMAL, 28/88. Rome: CNR Centro di Studio di Milano e Roma sulle cause di deperimento e sui metodi di conservazione delle opere d'arte and Istituto Centrale per il Restauro.

NORMAL. 1989a. Determinazione della calce e della magnesia residue. Raccomandazioni NORMAL, 31/89. Rome: CNR Centro di Studio di Milano e Roma sulle cause di deperimento e sui metodi di conservazione delle opere d'arte and Istituto Centrale per il Restauro.

NORMAL. 1989b. Determinazione gas volumetrica della CO2. Raccomandazioni NORMAL, 32/89. Rome: CNR Centro di Studio di Milano e Roma sulle cause di deperimento e sui metodi di conservazione delle opere d'arte and Istituto Centrale per il Restauro.

Palache, C., H.Berman, and C.Frondel. 1966. The system of mineralogy of J. D. Dana and E. S. Dana, vol. 2. New York: John Wiley. 484.

Teutonico, J. M.1988. A laboratory manual for architectural conservators. Rome: ICCROM.

Ullmanns Encyklopädie der technischen Chemie. 1976. Weinheim, Germany: Verlag Chemie. 12:291–93.


AUTHOR INFORMATION

A. ELENA CHAROLA obtained her degree in chemistry from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata in her native Argentina. She completed her postdoctoral work at New York University and stayed in the United States, becoming a citizen 20 years ago. She served as associate chemist in the Department of Objects Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; scientific advisor at the International Center for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) in Rome; and consultant to the Easter Island Program for World Monuments Fund (WMF). Since her return to the United States some 10 years ago, she has continued as technical consultant to WMF, including working on projects in other countries (Torre de Belem and Mosteiro dos Jerónimos in Lisbon, and Nemrut Dag in Turkey) while being an independent consultant in conservation. She has been lecturer in advanced architectural conservation in the graduate program in historic preservation, University of Pennsylvania, and national chair of the Brick Masonry Specialty Committee of US/ICOMOS since 1996. Address: 3618 Hamilton St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19104

SILVIA A. CENTENO received her Ph.D. in chemistry from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata in Argentina in 1994. In 1995 she was awarded an L.W. Frohlich Fellowship in Conservation at the Sherman Fairchild Center for Objects Conservation, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, to work on the investigation of pre-Columbian metalwork from Peru. From 1997 to 2001 she continued to be involved in various research projects in conservation at the MMA. In 2001 she was appointed associate scientist at the Sherman Fairchild Center for Works on Paper and Photograph Conservation and at the Sherman Fairchild Paintings Conservation Center (MMA). Her principal interests include the technical examination of works on paper and paintings by nondestructive techniques. Address: Sherman Fairchild Paintings Conservation Center, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1000 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10028-0198


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