JAIC 2003, Volume 42, Number 3, Article 5 (pp. 425 to 439)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 2003, Volume 42, Number 3, Article 5 (pp. 425 to 439)

“A TRANSPARENT ATMOSPHERE”: THE PAPER NEGATIVES OF FRÉDÉRIC FLACHÉRON IN THE HARRISON D. HORBLIT COLLECTION

LEE ANN DAFFNER



APPENDIX


APPENDIX 1 GUIDELINES FOR STORAGE AND HANDLING OF 19TH-CENTURY PAPER NEGATIVES


1 Storage Guidelines

  1. Photographic materials should be stored in enclosures made of materials that comply with ISO 18920, Imaging Materials: Processed Photographic Reflection Prints, Storage Practices (ISO 2000).
  2. The storage facility should be periodically monitored for temperature and relative humidity fluctuations. The maximum temperature should be 24°C (75°F) and 50% ± 5% relative humidity.
  3. It is recommended that works designated as valuable, irreplaceable, or fragile be clearly labeled for quick removal as part of a disaster recovery plan.


2 Handling Guidelines

  1. Inspection of paper negatives should be carried out in the presence of the collection manager.
  2. Enclosures should be designed to provide a rigid support for paper negatives, which are often brittle. The negative should be supported on a sheet of paper or board and never handled directly.
  3. Paper negatives should be viewed under controlled light conditions, blocking as much daylight as possible. Light levels should not exceed 5 footcandles (50 lux).
  4. Light boxes should be used with caution, so that heat is not generated from the light source, as this heat can cause waxed negatives to curl.
  5. It is highly recommended that Photo-Tex interleaving paper of the enclosure be placed directly against the recto and verso of negatives with wax admixtures and flaking media. This step is necessary to protect the delicate surfaces of these materials, which can include flaking media and tacky transpar-entizers, such as wax.


3 Exhibition Guidelines

  1. Because each paper negative is an individual artifact, the agent and a photograph conservator should jointly evaluate exhibition possibilities.
  2. Exhibition light levels should not exceed 5 foot-candles (50 lux).
  3. If the use of a backlight to illuminate the negative image is required, it should be constructed using a fiber-optic, non-heat-generating unit. With a light meter, measurements should be taken before the paper negative is placed. The lighting mechanism should be installed with a switch timer or motion sensor to terminate lighting when there are no viewers present.


4 Monitoring Guidelines

  1. In accordance with ISO 18920, Imaging Materials: Processed Photographic Reflection Prints, Storage Practices, an adequate number of photographs should be inspected at two–three year intervals. If deviations from recommended temperature and relative humidity ranges have occurred, inspection should be made at more frequent intervals. A record of inspection results should be maintained to monitor changes in appearance of photographs. Periodic re-inspection should be performed to ensure that corrective actions are effective.
  2. The changes to note during inspection should include: physical changes in materials such as warping and other planar distortions of substrate, cracking in coating and media flaking, and visual changes such as density change or the appearance of microblemishes.
  3. It is recommended that a conservator of photographs establish a baseline reading with either a densitometer or a spectrophotometer to reference changes in the collection.



REFERENCES

American Journal of Photography. 1865. Negative photography on paper—Flachéron's process. American Journal of Photography8(7):165–66

Art Journal. 1853. Photography exhibition at the Society of Arts. Art Journal5:56.

Blanchère, H.1865. Répertoire encyclopédique de photographie. Paris: Bureau de la Rédaction D'Abonnement et de Vente.

Burbank, W. H.1888. The photographic negative. New York: Scovill Manufacturing Company.

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Gaudin, A.1841. M. Gaudin écrit relativement à de nouvelles modifications qui'il a introduites dans les procédés photographiques. Comptes Rendus Hebdonmondaires des Séances de L'Académie des Sciences13(16):832.

Haist, G.1979. Modern photographic processing. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Helsted, D.1978. Rome in early photographs. History of Photography2(4):335–46.

ISO. 1999. Photography: Processed photographic materials, Photographic activity test for enclosure material, 14523. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

ISO. 2000. Imaging materials: Processed photographic reflection prints, Storage practices, 18920. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

Mills, J. S., and R.White. 1977. Natural resins of art and archaeology: Their sources, chemistry, and identification.Studies in Conservation22:12–31.

Naef, H.1966. Ingres et la famille Hayard.Gazette des Beaux-Arts20:37–50.

Naef, H.1977. Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A-D. Ingres. Bern: Bentelli.

Nishimura, D.1999. Personal communication. Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N. Y.

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Photographic Notes. 1856. On photographic paper. Photographic Notes6(3):10–11

Richard, P. M.1996. Auguste Ravier photographe: L'aquarelle aux sels d'argent. In François-Auguste Ravier, 1814–1895. Lyons: Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon. 74–77.

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Smith, J. S.1857. Abstract of Mr. T. Shaw Smith's paper on the calotype or wet-paper process. Journal of the Photographic Society3(April 21):257.

Talbot, H. F.1841. The process of Talbotype (formally called calotype) photogenic drawing. Communicated to the Royal Society, June 10, 1841London: J. L. Cox and Sons.

Taylor, R.2002. Photographs exhibited in Britain, 1839–1865. Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada.

Thomas, R. W.1852. Photography in Rome.Art Journal4:159–60.

Tingry, P. F.1804. The painter and varnisher's guide. London: G. Kearsley, Fleet-Street.

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FURTHER READING

Blackwell, J.1977. Infrared and raman spectroscopy of cellulose.American Chemical Society Symposium Series48:206–18.

Blanquart-Evrard, L. D.1851. Traité de photographie sur papier. Paris: Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret.

Brettell, R., R.Fluckinger, et al. 1984. Paper and light: The calotype in France and Great Britain, 1839–1870. London: David Godine.

Daffner, L.1995. Examination and survey of nineteenth-century paper negatives.Topics in Photographic Preservation6:1–10.

Delamotte, P. H.1853. The practice of photography: A manual for students and amateurs. London: Joseph Cundell.

Derrick, M.1989. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis of natural resins used in furniture finishes. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation28(1):43–56

Edwards, H. G. M., D. W.Farwell, and L.Daffner. 1996. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of natural waxes and resins.Part 1. Spectrochemica Acta Part A(52):1639–84.

Electra. 1979. Fotografia italiana dell'Ottocento. Milan: Electra.

Hon, D. N.-S.1986. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: Use in the study of paper documents. In Historic textile and paper materials: Conservation and characterization, ed.H. L.Needles and S. H.Zeronian. Washington D. C.: American Chemical Society. 349–61.

ISO. 2001. Imaging materials: Processed films, plates and papers, Filing enclosures and storage containers, 18902. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.

Jammes, A., and E.Parry Janis. 1983. The art of French calotype with a critical dictionary of photographers, 1845–1870. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

Liang, C. Y., and R. H.Marchessault. 1959. Infrared spectra of crystalline polysaccharides. Part 1, Hydrogen bonds in native cellulose. Journal of Polymer Science37:385–95

McCormick-Goodhart, M.1989. Research on collodion glass plate negatives: Coating thickness and the identification of varnishes. Topics in Photographic Preservation3:135–50

Mérimée, J.-F.-L.1830. De la peinture à l'huile, ou, Des procédes matériels employés dans ce genre de peinture, depuis Hubert et Jean Van-Eyck jusqu' à nos jours. Paris: Huzard.

Severson, D. G.1986. The effects of exhibition on photographs. Topics in Photographic Preservation1:38–43

Ware, M.1994. Mechanisms of image deterioration in early photographs: The sensitivity to light of W. H. F. Talbot's halide-fixed images, 1834–1844. London and Bradford: Science Museum and National Museum of Photography, Film and Television.


AUTHOR INFORMATION

LEE ANN DAFFNER is a graduate of the Art Conservation Department at the State University of New York at Buffalo, where she received an M.A. and certificate of advanced study in art conservation. She has studied and worked with paper negative collections at the George Eastman House in Rochester, New York, and the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television in Bradford, England. She is conservator of photographs at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Address: Conservation Department, Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53d St., New York, N.Y. 10019


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