JAIC 2004, Volume 43, Number 1, Article 5 (pp. 55 to 73)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 2004, Volume 43, Number 1, Article 5 (pp. 55 to 73)






Cloud point: temperature below which the solubility of an anionic surfactant drops dramatically and above which the solubility of a nonionic surfactant drops dramatically. When the surfactant comes out of solution, it forms a white cloud of minute particles. The nominal cloud point is measured on a 1% w/v aqueous solution. Nonionic surfactants have their greatest surface activity near the cloud point (Timar-Balazsy and Eastop 1998).

Critical micelle concentration (CMC): surfactants form aggregates of molecules or ions called micelles when the concentration of surfactant solute in the bulk of the solution exceeds a limiting value, i.e., the critical micelle concentration. The CMC is a fundamental characteristic of each solute and is also temperature dependent (Howe-Grant 1977).

Hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB): a means for characterizing surfactants based upon the proportion of hydrophilic to lipophilic regions. An HLB value of zero represents a water-insoluble surfactant. The maximum HLB value is 20, although most surfactants tend to lie in the region of 11 to 15. The value for the HLB can be calculated on the basis of its molecular weight. One such method for ethoxylates is a fifth of the percentage by weight of ethoxylate in the molecule (Daniels 2000).


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Campbell, B.2004. Personal communication. Product Development, Commercial Product Development Group, CPG TN6, Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Daniels, J.2000. Synperonic N replacement. Unpublished report and presentation. Uniqema, Middlesborough, U. K.

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Timar-Balazsy, A., and Eastop, D.1998. Chemical principles of textile conservation. London: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.


OSPAR Commission Report. 1998. DIFF98/9/1-E. Helsinki, Finland.



Testfabrics 100% wool (Style 530) and 100% cotton (Style 405) in a 10-yard roll approximately 9144 mm length x 100 mm wide with soiled portion approximately 437 mm length x 91 mm wide

Westlairds Limited Patrixbourne The Green, Datchet Slough SL3 9JH, U.K.


Minolta CR-300 Chroma Meter, 8 mm measuring area and 0o viewing angle

Minolta (UK) Limited 1-3 Tanners Drive Blakelands North Milton Keynes MK14 5BU, U.K.

EDT Instruments Series 3 pH meter

EDT Instruments Dover, Kent CT16 2DR, U.K.

CMD400 Digital Conductivity Meter

WPA Milton Rd. Unit 22 Cambridge Science Park Cambridge CB4 0FJ, U.K.


Dehypon LS36, Dehypon LS45 Conservation Resources (UK) Ltd. Units 1, 2, 4 & 5 Pony Road Horspath Industrial Estate Cowley, Oxford OX4 2RD, U.K. +44-1865-747755

Hostapon T

Clariant GmbH c/o Chemlink Specialties Ltd. Carrington Business Park, Carrington Urmston Manchester M31 4ZU, U.K. +44-161-7764303

Imbentin T/090, Imbentin C/135/070

Libra Chemical Ltd. Brinell Drive, North Bank Industrial Park, Irlam Manchester M44 5LF, U.K. +44-161-7751 888

Irgasol PL

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Plc. Charter Way Macclesfield SK10 2NX, U.K. +44-1625-421933

Orvus WA Paste (Procter and Gamble)

Preservation Equipment Ltd. Shelfhanger Diss Norfolk IP22 2DG, U.K. +44-1379-651527


Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals The Old Brickyard New Road, Gillingham Dorset SP8 4XT, U.K. + 44-800-717181

Synperonic N, Synperonic A7, and Synperonic 91/6

Uniqema P.O. Box 90 Wilton Middlesborough Cleveland TS90 8JE, U.K. +44-1642-432 395

Triton XL-80N

Union Carbide Benelux c/o SurfaChem Ltd. Wellington Park House, Thirsk Row Leeds, LS1 4DF, U.K. +44-113-2342636

Technical data

CMCs were experimentally determined by the authors, but the cloud points are from the manufacturer's literature.


JOHN A. FIELDS was awarded a B.Sc. in applied chemistry from Dublin City University in 1995, which he followed with a one-year internship in the Paper Conservation Studio at the National Gallery of Ireland. This work subsequently led to a Ph.D. on “Analysis of Ancient and Modern Chinese Paper” at Queen's University, Belfast, in conjunction with the British Library. Fields joined the British Museum in 1999 as a conservation scientist and worked mainly on conservation science problems relating to organic materials. In April 2001 he joined the Irish State Laboratory, where he is continuing to work in the area of heritage and environment. Address: The State Laboratory, Abbotstown, Dublin 15, Republic of Ireland; e-mail: john.fields@statelab.ie

ANDREW WINGHAM received an M.Sci. in chemistry with conservation science at Imperial College London in conjunction with the Royal College of Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum. During his degree, he concentrated on analytical techniques and numerous conservation science issues, and for his dissertation he carried out research into the alternatives to Synperonic N. He has recently completed an M.Sc. in forensic archaeological science at the Institute of Archaeology, University College, London. Address: 1–3 High St., Biddenden, Kent TN27 8AL, U.K.; e-mail: andrew@collectablegifts.net

FRANCES HARTOG began her three-year apprenticeship training in textile conservation in 1989 at the Textile Conservation Studio in London. From 1992 to 1994 she worked at the Textile Conservation Center, then undertook two years of contract work at the Museum of London. In 1996 she joined the National Trust at its Textile Conservation Studio in Norfolk. Two years later she took up her present post as a senior textile conservator in the Conservation Department of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Address: Textile Conservation, Victoria & Albert Museum, South Kensington, London SW7 2RL, U.K.; e-mail: f.hartog@vam.ac.uk

VINCENT DANIELS studied chemistry for his B.Sc. and studied the reactions of thermally degraded polyvinylchloride (PVC) for his Ph.D. from University College, Cardiff, Wales. He joined the British Museum in 1974 to work in the Research Laboratory on the conservation science of paper and books. He joined the Department of Conservation on its formation in 1975. Since then he has worked on a wide variety of conservation science problems, but recurring themes are the deterioration of cellulosic fibers, dyes, and pigments. He left the British Museum in 2003 and is now a research fellow at the Royal College of Art. Address: Conservation Department, School of Humanities, Royal College of Art, Kensington Gore, London SW7 2EU, U.K.; e-mail: vincent.daniels@rca.ac.uk

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