THE USE OF CYCLODODECANE AS A TEMPORARY BARRIER FOR WATER-SENSITIVE INK ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL CERAMICS DURING DESALINATION
VANESSA MUROS, & JOHN HIRX
1. No details are given of the exact nature of the propellant or solvent in the aerosol spray can since it is proprietary information. The information available on the website (www.hangleiter.com) states that in the spray can, cyclododecane is present in a solved form with the propellant being the only solvent. The solvent is described as being extremely volatile.
APPENDIX 1. METHODS USED FOR THE EXAMINATION OF CDD'S WORKING PROPERTIES
1. Examination of Application Methods and Crystalline structure
Cyclododecane was applied in various forms on glass slides to compare the crystalline structures produced by different application methods. The application methods used were CDD as a melt, in solutions, and in an aerosol spray. A total of nine solvents were used to make up the solutions, for testing: petroleum ether, naphtha, isooctane, mineral spirits, dichloromethane, toluene, xylene, 1-1-1, trichloroethane, and heptane. These solvents were chosen based on their uses during similar published examinations, as well as by simply choosing previously untested solvents in which CDD was soluble. The degree of solubility of cyclododecane in each solvent varied, and therefore all solutions were made to the same concentration, 85% w/v, for consistency during testing. For the melt film, a heated spatula was used. A spraying distance of at least 3–4 cm was used for the aerosol spray, as recommended by Hangleiter (1999). The slides were examined using a binocular microscope, 10–40x magnification. Some of the films formed from the various application methods examined are shown in figure 2.
2. Determination of the Sublimation of CDD from Glass Slides and Terracotta Samples
Sublimation rate tests were conducted in a method similar to that used by Maish and Risser (2002) and Stein et al. (2000). Glass slides and several terracotta samples, measuring 3.5 x 4 cm and 7 mm thick, were coated for these tests. The surfaces of the samples were treated with cyclododecane as a melt, a spray, in petroleum ether, and in mineral spirits. Cyclododecane was applied until a 2 mm film was formed. The samples were kept uncovered and at room temperature (23°C, 40% RH) during testing. The sublimation process was monitored by weighing the samples before coating and then reweighing them every 24 hours until they reached their pretreatment weight. It was assumed that at this point, the cyclododecane would have sublimed completely from the sample.
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SOURCES OF MATERIALSColorhue Instant Set silk dyes
Things Japanese 9805 NE 116th St. Kirkland, Wash. 98034Cyclododecane
Kremer Pigments Inc. 228 Elizabeth St. New York, N.Y. 10012Cyclododecane—spray can
Hans-Michael Hangleiter GmbH Bismarckstrasse 13 D64853 Otzberg GermanyHiggins Fountain Pen India nonwaterproof black ink, item 46030 (723)
Sanford Bellwood, Ill. 60104Paper Mate nylon fiber point pen, Series 860, black ink, no. 863-11
The Gillette Co. Paper Mate Division Box 61 Boston, Mass. 02199Zephytronics AirPencil ZT-2
SMT Pin Point Soldering System 225 N. Palomares Pomona, Calif. 91767
VANESSA MUROS is an assistant conservator at the Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago. After receiving her B.A. in archaeology from Boston University, she completed the master's program in conservation at the Institute of Archaeology, University College, London. She has been an intern in the Metals Conservation Section at the British Museum and has worked as a conservator on various excavations. The research conducted for this article was completed during her Mellon Fellowship in Objects Conservation at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 2000. Address: Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago, 1155 E. 58th St., Chicago, Ill. 60637
JOHN HIRX is the head objects conservator at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. For almost 10 years, he has worked in both conservation research and objects conservation, examining, analyzing, and treating works of art. In particular, he has focused on conservation and analytical studies related to ancient silver, Islamic ceramics, and seismic mitigation of LACMA's monumental sculptures. He has served as vice chair and chair for the Research and Technical Studies (RATS) specialty group of AIC. Prior to working at LACMA, Hirx worked for the Brooklyn Museum of Art, where he treated objects in the Egyptian collection prior to reinstallation, and for the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Address: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 5905 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90036