JAIC 2004, Volume 43, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 151 to 160)
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC 2004, Volume 43, Number 2, Article 3 (pp. 151 to 160)

THE EFFECT OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION ON COLOR RETENTION AND PESTICIDE REDUCTION OF WOODEN ARTIFACTS

SUNG MO KANG, ACHIM UNGER, & J.J. MORRELL




REFERENCES

Clifford, T.1998. Fundamentals of supercritical fluids. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.

Fremont, H. A.1981. Extraction of coniferous wood with fluid CO2 or other supercritical fluids. U. S. Patent 4, 308, 200.

Larsen, A., N.Jentoft, and T.Greibrokk. 1992. Extraction of formaldehyde from particleboard with supercritical carbon dioxide. Forest Products Journal42(4):45–48.

Levien, K. L., J. J.Morrell, S.Kumar, and E.SahleDemessie. 1994. Process for removing chemical preservatives from wood using supercritical fluid extraction. U. S. Patent 5, 364, 475.

Ohira, T., F.Terauchi, and M.Yatagai. 1994. Tropolones extracted from the wood of western red cedar by supercritical carbon dioxide. Holzforschung48:308–12.

Ruddick, J. N. R., and F.Cui. 1995. Extraction of toxic organic contaminants from wood and photodegradation of toxic organic contaminants. U. S. Patent 5, 476, 975.

Sahle-Demessie, E.1994. Deposition of chemicals in semi-porous solids using supercritical fluid carriers. Ph. D. diss., Oregon State University, Corvallis.

Sahle-Demessie, E., J. S.Yi, K. L.Levien, and J. J.Morrell. 1997. Supercritical fluid extraction of pentachlorophenol from pressure-treated wood. Separation Science and Technology32(6):1067–85.

Schneider, P. F.1999. Pressure measurement in wood as a method to understand pressure impregnation process: Bethell, Rueping, Lowry and supercritical carbon dioxide. Ph. D. diss., Oregon State University, Corvallis.

Siau, J. F.1971. Flow in wood.Syracuse, N. Y.: Syracuse University Press.

Snyder, J. L., R. L.Grob, M. E.McNally, and T. S.Oostdyk. 1992. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction with classical sonication and soxhlet extraction for selected pesticides. Analytical Chemistry64:1940–46.

Snyder, J. L., R. L.Grob, M. E.McNally, and T. S.Oostdyk. 1993. The effect of instrumental parameters and soil matrix on the recovery of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides from soils using supercritical fluid extraction. Journal of Chromatographic Science31:183–91.

Terauchi, F., T.Ohira, M.Yatagi, T.Ohgama, H.Aoki, and T.Suzuki. 1993. Extraction of volatile compounds from coniferous woods with supercritical carbon dioxide. Mokuzai Gakkaishi39(12):1421–30.

Unger, A.1998. Umweltschädliche Holzschutzmittel. Restauro104(3):186–91.



SOURCES OF MATERIALS

Azurite, Bologna chalk, bone glue, canvas, champagne chalk, Cremnitz white, cinnabar, colophony, gold lacquer, Klucel E, lapis lazuli, mastic, Naples yellow, poppyseed oil, Primal AC 35, red lead, sandarac, shellac, skin glue, smalt, stone chalk, titanium white, turpentine oil, zinc white

Dr. Georg Kremer Farbmühle D-88317 Aichstetten/Allgäu Germany

Blanc fixe, copal of Manila, damar, benzoe, linseed oil, lithopones, marble powder, tow, potassium carbonate, terra di Siena

Firma Propolis Oranienstraße 14a D-10997 Berlin Germany

Green chromium oxide hydrate, English red, gold ocher, mixtion (for leaf gold and leaf silver), Primacryl, resin/oil medium (Mussini), ultramarine blue, ultramarine blue (light)

Firma H. Schmincke & Co. Otto-Hahn-Str. 2 D-40699 Erkrath Germany

Rembrandt oil paints with Naples yellow (table 1, no. 10), cinnabar (table 1, no. 18) and Cremnitz white (table 1, no. 21)

Royal Talens B.V. Postbus 4 NL-7300 AA Appeldoorn/Holland The Netherlands

Ammonia casein, beeswax, casein, gelatin, leaf gold (citron gold, ducat gold), leaf silver, rabbit skin glue, red bole, white bole

Firma W. Wasner, Blattgold GmbH Wallenrodstr. 8–10 D-91126 Schwabach Germany


AUTHOR INFORMATION

SUNG-MO KANG received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in wood science from Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, in 1998 and 2002, respectively. He is a research associate in the Department of Forest Products at Korea Forest Research Institute in the Republic of Korea. His research interests include stain fungi and their control, preservative treatment of refractory species, supercritical fluid biocide impregnation and extraction of wood-based materials, and the migration of preservatives from treated wood. Address: Korea Forest Research Institute, 207 Cheongnyangni-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul, 130-712, Republic of Korea

ACHIM UNGER received a Ph.D. in natural sciences from the Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Berlin, Germany. At present he is senior chemist in the Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. His research focuses on the analytical investigation of art objects made from organic materials, wood consolidants, pest control, and decontamination of biocides. He is co-author of Conservation of Wood Artifacts (2001). Address: Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Staaliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Germany

JEFFREY J. MORRELL received his B.S. and Ph.D. in forest pathology from the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and his M.S. in plant pathology from Penn State. He is currently a professor in the Department of Wood Science and Engineering at Oregon State University. His research interests include aspects of biodeterioration and its prevention. Address: Department of Wood Science and Engineering, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Ore. 97333


Copyright © 2004 American Institution for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works