HUNTING FREE AND BOUND CHLORIDE IN THE WROUGHT IRON RIVETS FROM THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR SUBMARINE H. L. HUNLEY
NÉSTOR G. GONZÁLEZ, PHILIPPE DE VIVIÉS, MICHAEL J. DREWS, & PAUL MARDIKIAN
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NÉSTOR G. GONZÁLEZ received a degree in chemistry in 1996 and graduated in 2002 in chemical engineering from the Universidad de la Republica in Uruguay. He worked with the underwater archaeological team at the Uruguayan National Heritage Office (Comision del Patrimonio Cultural de la Nacion). He is currently working as a chemical engineer on the H. L. Hunley Project. His research interests include the corrosion and conservation of metals as well as nonmetallic artifacts recovered from marine environments. Address: H. L. Hunley Project, Warren Lasch Conservation Center, 1250 Supply Street Bldg. 255, North Charleston, S.C. 29405
PHILIPPE DE VIVIÉS graduated in 1992 as a metallurgist specializing in heat treatment processes. He began to work in the field of underwater conservation with Paul Mardikian in 1995. In August 2000, he joined the H. L. Hunley Project to work on his master's degree in the conservation of cultural properties from the Paris I Pantheon Sorbonne University conservation program. He is currently working as a conservator at the Warren Lasch Conservation Center in Charleston, South Carolina. De Viviés's experience includes work in field conservation and treatment of artifacts from the CSS Alabama and a number of ancient shipwrecks. He has also worked in Alexandria, Egypt, with Jean-Yves Empereur, director of research at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in collaboration with the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology. Address as for González.
MICHAEL J. DREWS received his B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of North Texas. He was a postdoctoral student under Dr. Robert H. Barker at Clemson University. He has also been a guest worker at the Center for Fire Research at the National Institute for Science and Technology and is currently on sabbatical at the Warren Lasch Conservation Center in Charleston, South Carolina. His research interests include the corrosion and conservation of iron artifacts as well as the use of dense gas fluids in the conservation of nonmetallic artifacts from marine sites. Address as for González.
PAUL MARDIKIAN obtained his M.A. in archaeology and art history from the School of the Louvre in Paris in 1989 and his M.S. in conservation sciences and techniques from the Sorbonne University in 1991. Specializing in marine archaeological conservation, he worked several years with the team from the Electricité de France Valectra Laboratory on the conservation of artifacts from the Titanic, with specialists from the Canadian Heritage Parks Canada in the area of wet organic materials and composites. He joined the team of the Western Australian Maritime Museum as an honorary research fellow. His experience in the field of maritime archaeology and conservation ranges from ancient shipwrecks in the Mediterranean to the conservation of American Civil War artifacts. His work includes the conservation for the U.S. Navy of numerous artifacts retrieved from the Confederate raider Alabama sunk off France in 1864. He has been conserving artifacts for the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C., since 1988, and he has been serving as senior conservator on the H. L. Hunley Project since 1999. Address as for González.