Conservation Resources at Other Sites
"A search engine about the conservation of cultural heritage, restoration and maintenance of the architecture, preservation of the urban landscape" It was created by the technical office of architect Sergio Tinè
"The preservation world agrees that international cooperation is essential. In order to stimulate the flow of information and to enable useres to find experts to consult in their region or partners for cooperative projects we have gathered information on current preservation and conservation practice and policies in each European country. By mapping all preservation activities in Europe a better picture will emerge of what is being done and in which area cooperation is possible and necessary. We hope this will stimulate the development of joint projects and more targeted research". Hosted by ECPA, funded by the European Commission(DG XIII).
"GRIP is a a fully searchable database of information on preservation of the documentary heritage. It contains selected and annotated references to literature on preservation-related topics, links to websites, projects, organizations and discussion groups.
"GRIP presents a core of accessible and recent materials selected by experts and provides an introduction to a great many aspects of preservation. The database can be searched by category, keywords (descriptors) and free search. For searching by descriptor a thesaurus is used based on a part of the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) of the Getty Research Institute. More explanation on searching GRIP
"Apart from a selection of introductory materials, the database contains a larger amount of references to a number of specific topics. These have been collected from special publications and websites that are also accessible directly
"GRIP is a joint project of Nationaal Archief (the National Archives of the Netherlands) and the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA). GRIP is maintained by a team consisting of staff of National Archief (the National Archives of the Netherlands), the Scientific Advisory Committee of the ECPA, and the ECPA Secretariat."
"AATA OnLine presents all volumes of Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts and its predecessor, IIC Abstracts, published between 1955 and the present.
This is the principle bibliographic resource in the field of conservation and an AATA search should be a basic component of virtually any conservation research effort.
"Digital Print Preservation Portal, a part of the DP3 Project. This website is the result of extensive research into the long-term care of digitally printed materials that was performed by the Image Permanence Institute with the help from grants from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
"The intention of this website is to provide collection care professionals with the information, skills, and tools they need to ensure the survival of their digitally printed materials. Because this site is intended to be a didactic and not just a reference, it is designed with a curriculum structure. Each of the following menu headings contains what can be considered a lesson that becomes a building block for the next section:
- Technologies: explanations of the major digital printing technologies
- Identification: methods for identifying the various digital print types to ensure accurate care for each object type
- Deterioration: descriptions of the forces of deterioration and their manifestations in digital print collections materials
- Preservation: strategies to mitigate damage to the various digital print types for each of the decay forces
"The final section, Resources, provides links to supplementary materials that can help the user more fully understand digital printing technologies or lead them to complimentary materials that can expand their knowledge of broader collection issues and how to integrate digital print collections into their current catalogues of traditionally printed materials or other collection asset types.
"This work is a part of a broader research on the identification of Asian papers conducted since 2010 at CRCC (Research Centre on the Conservation of Collections) in collaboration with institutes in China, Korea and Japan (Fudan University-Shanghai, National Museum of Ethnolgy-Osaka, Prefectural Paper Technology Center-Kochi, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage-Deajeon, Kookmin University-Seoul, Chungbuk National University-Cheongju).
"This database is will help to develop a better understanding of the materials constituting works of art and documents on Asian paper; it is designated to conservators, archaeologists, historians, art historians and paleographers.We are pleased to announce the launch of a database called Khartasia http://khartasia-crcc.mnhn.fr gathering information on Asian papers (components, manufacturing processes, historical elements, elements for the identification of papers).
"This work is a part of a broader research on the identification of Asian papers conducted since 2010 at CRCC (Research Centre on the Conservation of Collections) in collaboration with institutes in China, Korea and Japan (Fudan University-Shanghai, National Museum of Ethnolgy-Osaka, Prefectural Paper Technology Center-Kochi, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage-Deajeon, Kookmin University-Seoul, Chungbuk National University-Cheongju).
"This database is will help to develop a better understanding of the materials constituting works of art and documents on Asian paper; it is designated to conservators, archaeologists, historians, art historians and paleographers."
"Comparing Spectral Power Distribution (SPD) curves: This web site has been set up to allow users to examine and compare the Spectral Power Distribution (SPD) curves of a number of different light sources and begin to discuss the relative proportions of these SPDs. The curves and relative proportions can been seen here and here or acessed via the appropriate links at the top of the page. Further details, including descriptions of the equipment and calculations used, along with additional links can be found on the information page. If you would like to contribute data to this project or would like to recommend other sources of information please contact Joseph Padfield."
A remarkable resource that will be part of every conservator's working tool-set.
"CAMEO is a searchable information center developed by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials."
A brief excerpt from About CAMEO, which provides a more detailed—and well worth reading—history of the project and the people who built it:
"The Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO) is an electronic database that compiles, defines, and disseminates technical information on the distinct collection of terms, materials, and techniques used in the fields of art conservation and historic preservation. In 1997, the database, formerly called the Conservation and Art Materials Dictionary (CAMD), was developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston by the Conservation and Collections Management Department under the direction of Arthur Beale. An initial grant from the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT) along with additional resources and support from the MFA enabled the first version of the database to be placed on the Internet in November 2000."
"The Forbes' Pigment Collection contains over 1000 colorants assembled by the late Edward Waldo Forbes, former Director of the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University (1909-1945). Currently, the core collection of pigments is housed in the Straus Center for Conservation at Harvard University while Forbes' private collection of pigments resides at the Institute for Fine Arts Conservation Center at New York University. Known subsets of these two collections exist in nineteen additional laboratories around the world. These colorants have been analyzed widely by most of the labs and thus the goal of this database is to provide one central, searchable, readily-accessible location for the compilation of any available information from all sources. The combination of this information will document the materials and aid in the determination of their compositions."
"A forum point for sharing information and accessing resources about preserving cellulose acetate collections in Australia"
"The National Park Service (NPS), together with several partners, has taken on the challenge of developing a more systematic approach to including preservation in the exhibit planning, design, and fabrication process. The Department of Conservation has embarked on a major project to create a preservation framework and tool for both NPS personnel and exhibition specialists in general."
"Preserv'Art is an interactive database of products and equipments used for the conservation and protection of artifacts, works of art and archival documents. It was developed for collection managers, archivists, curators, conservators, artists, museum technicians, students, teachers, ..."
"Preserv'Art was developed by the Centre de conservation du Québec (CCQ). It is an interactive database on products and equipment used in preventive conservation for the protection of works of art, artifacts and archival documents during an exhibition, transit or storage. The Preserv'Art database collates within files, pertinent information found in scientific and commercial publications. It combines this data with the practical input of various specialists from the conservation field, thus providing useful information on the applications and uses of the various products listed. Preserv'Art will help users of the database make informed choices on the appropriate products to use.
A conservator's research into an engraving by Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Also includes glossary and bibliography.
"This list will carry announcements and information on activities relevant to the preservation and management of digital materials in the UK. It will be used to disseminate information on the work of JISC Digital Preservation Focus, the Digital Preservation Coalition and related initiatives.
It is intended to be a moderated low-traffic announcement and current awareness list of selected key initiatives and developments in the field of digital preservation of interest to archivists, curators, data creators, librarians and records managers both within higher education and related sectors. Topics will include: digital archiving, management and preservation; electronic records management; emulation; migration; long-term access; research projects; national, international and institutional initiatives in relevant areas."
"We are pleased to inform you all that there is an online forum dedicated to Art Conservation and everyone is welcome to join. It is the most simply, direct and fast way of communicate, present your questions, ask for help or just share information. The aim is to create a community of professionals which work in any field related to Conservation. Conservators, conservation scientists, chemists, physics, art historians, engineers and other professionals and all students interested and working on the area are welcome to participate. To join you only have to register (the registration is free) The forum is available to English, Spanish and Portuguese speakers independently of the nationality.
""This Issue represents but a selection of the richness of research work presented in Sharjah the Editors are indebted to all who contributed their manuscripts that underwent the same scrupulous editorial process as any other volume of Studies, as well as to the LACONA Permanent Scientific Committee for their trust and confidence. The work presented here is key to the continued development as well as adoption of laser-based methods in conservation ...""
"In this study Egyptian linen textiles were treated by 12 different polymers and resins, which are important in conservation of ancient Egyptian linen textiles. Untreated and treated samples were deteriorated by 7 selected fungal strains isolated from ancient Egyptian textiles, for two weeks. Tensile strength of the biodeteriorated samples was assessed. SEM was used to fallow the change in the surface morphology of the biodeteriorated samples. Also, Spectrophotometric measurements were used to assess change in colour differences of the biodeteriorated samples. The results obtained had showed that most of tested polymers reduce the biodeterioration of linen textiles but not prevent the deterioration at all. Beva 371, Plexisol P-550, Paraloid B72 and starch carbamate are the most tested polymers resistant for biodeterioration. Acryloid F-10, Calaton CA and Mowilith are the least tested polymers resistant for biodeterioration."
"Representative samples of the new parchment were prepared to be in an advanced state of degradation by application of artificial heat aging. The degraded aged samples are submitted to experiments concerning applied consolidation materials (polymers) on parchment. The purpose of this study is to establish if an increase in the properties of parchment can be attained with none or as less as possible interference with the appearance of the object. A comparison is made between six polymers by impregnation method. Investigation of some mechanical properties, change of color and the humidity sorption were used to evaluate the studied polymers. The results revealed that the polymers, which dissolved in organic solvents, were better than that dissolved in water."
"Saint Duje cathedral in Split is composed of two parts of distinct age. The main part, Emperor Diocletian's mausoleum, dates at the end of the 3nd century A.D. In the 17st century Chatolic church added the "chorus"at the eastern side of the mausoleum. The eastern wall of the mausoleum was taken down in order to unify the two chambers. In the "chorus" chamber multiply repaired fissures were noticed. These fissures are still existent. As it was decided that the construction needs a major repair, the works were peceeded by instrumental monitoring of most obvious fissures. At the same time, air temperature and humidity within and outside the construction were measured. Devices used enable permanent reading of the fissure parameters, but the readings are taken only with period of one day or less. Devices were set up by the italian Company SER.CO.EC. of Trieste. Monitoring was organized and conducted by regional office of the Croatian ministry of culture in Split. Positions of the monitoring devices are shown Fig. 1. At first observations were recorded daily, but as it was found out that this was too frequent, this frequency was reduced. Initially, eleven sensors were used. Observations on measuring location P2 and P3 have shown almost no change of fissure width until 18.09.1996., so that these sensors were then repositioned to points P1 and P11 with intention to suplement the horizontal fissure width measurements with vertical ones. These two measuring locations are positioned on the contact of the construction and mausoleum at core window height. Locations P2 and P3 were abandoned."
"The Belle, a French vessel that sank in1686 was discovered in July 1995 in shallow water in Matagorda Bay, Texas. The shipwreck is considered one of the earliest and most important finds in North America. The remains of the wreck were completely excavated in 1996-1997 by the Texas Historical Commission under the auspices of the State Marine Archaeologist. All the artifacts and the hull of the ship were sent to the Nautical Conservation Research Laboratory at Texas A&M University where they will be cleaned and conserved over the next several years.
Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle is perhaps best known for his exploit during his previous expedition to the New World four years earlier. At that time he discovered Illinois and the Mississippi River. He followed the Mississippi River all the way down to the Gulf of Mexico at that time. He then claimed all the land bounded by it in the name of France. Two years later he had convinced Louis the XIV, the king of France to commit four ships to an expedition to colonize the new territory and gain a foothold before Spain could do so. In August of 1684 LaSalle left France with four ships, colonist and many tons of supplies and trade goods. The three other ships were lost by various means. One carried crew back to France, another was captured by Spanish pirates and the third ship hit a sandbar and sunk in a channel near Matagorda Bay. The expedition was doomed to failure due to desertion, hostile indians, poor maps that existed and inadequate calculation of latitude and longitude. Finally the Belle was lost due to the captain's drinking and a storm that drove the ship on to a sandbar. LaSalle was eventually assassinated by his own men who could not tolerate his demeanor and direction."
"From the 16th to the 18th century Saxony had been one of the richest and most developing states in Germany. The Saxon elector Friedrich August II, called August the Strong supported not only the arts but also manufactures and scientists. The Saxon E.W. von Tschirnhaus, promoted by the elector, was one of the last all-round scientists of the 17th century, dealing with philosophy and also with natural and technical sciences. Tschirnhaus was not only one of the mental originators of European porcelain manufacturing, he also dealt intensively with the improvement of glass production and glass applications, especially in the fields of scientific use. Under his direction products of excellent quality had been manufactured by the Dresden glassworks using special methods. These manufacturing procedures had been applied until the middle of the 18th century.
The call for glass ware was great in the elector's court and could not been satisfied by only one glasswork. Thus also products made by different works had been used. Recently a considerable number of them have been collected into museums. But nowadays it is sometimes difficult to determine the origin of many pieces.
The glass ware of the 17th until the early 19th century was produced using naturally original materials. In that way also small amount of natural born radioactivity such as uranium daughter products and K-40 remained in the final products. Their concentration depends on the location the material had been got from and the glass refining procedures.
Investigating glass ware of known origin it is possible to determine special concentrations of natural born radioactivity as fingerprints of this glassworks."
"The spectroscopic examination of artworks is of high importance for conservators, art-historians and keepers of private or public museum collections. These investigations reveal information, which is of general (art-) historical interest: the knowledge of the artistic materials that were used and were available at a certain period in a particular region and the dissemination of new methods provide information about the interactions between distinct cultures and about trade routes. The knowledge on the artists' materials that were available in particular regions and periods can help in dating artefacts. The retrieval of pigments with a well-known date of invention enables to date the artefact post quem. Other materials are known to have disappeared from the artists' palette, because they were substituted by others and retrieving enables to date artefacts ante quem. Finding anachronisms in the materials that were used, is a straightforward way for the exposure of counterfeit masterpieces. Another method consists of the comparison with the materials that were used in known works of the same artist. If it is well-established that a certain artist in a large group of works from a particular period never used certain pigments, finding these materials in a suspect painting deepens the suspicion and invites for further examinations. Besides these reasons for the spectroscopic examination of objects of art, an important purpose of this work is to help conservators in finding the reasons of the deterioration of a certain artwork and helping them in optimising the conditions of conservation. The main purpose of any analytical examination of artefacts should be to gain as much information as possible in a non-destructive way.
Molecular Raman spectroscopy is well-suited for this purpose: it enables the identification of inorganic and organic pigments, as well as binding media and varnishes . By focusing a laser on a sample the intensity of the inelastically scattered light is plotted against the Raman wavenumber, which is proportional to the difference in energy between the laser and the scattered light. By using a microscope to focus the laser beam on the sample, i.e. micro-Raman spectroscopy, one can get spectra from particles with a diameter down to 1 æm, which is about the usual dimension of artists' pigments. This high lateral resolution can be used for the examination of
- embedded stratigraphic samples, of
- micro-samples, or even for the
- direct investigation of artefacts that can be positioned under the microscope. For large artefacts
- fibre optics can be used for remote investigation. In this case there is loss of spatial resolution to some mm2.
In this work examples of these four different ways of application of Raman spectroscopy are given."
"Many of the problems in the conservation and restoration of ancient masterpieces are caused by the degradation of the binding medium or the varnish layer. Numerous different natural organic binding materials have been used; therefore, the identification of these materials is of high importance.
For the characterisation of binding media with separation methods, such as gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capilary electrophoresis (CE) generally a large sample is required (typically more than 100 æg). Moreover, the extensive sample preparation and the multi-parameter operating conditions make alternative methods desirable. Raman spectroscopy is a nondestructive spectroscopic method, which can be used for the identification of small samples (typically less than 1 æg) of the materials used in objects of art, such as inorganic and organic pigments and natural binders and varnishes. The Raman-spectra are a fingerprint of the molecular structure of these materials, which can be used for their identification and for the study of degradation processes.
A classification of natural organic binding media and varnishes is proposed which is based on their characteristic chemical functionalities, as revealed by their molecular Raman-spectra . Four major groups can be distinguished, namely the proteinaceous binding media, the resins, the fatty acid containing materials and the polysaccharide binding media."
"About the 80% of the Venetian monuments and edifices have been built up, decorated or covered by limestone coming from quarries located in the Istria peninsula.
Nowadays, these pits are still exploited for the extraction of Pietra d'Istria stone, and their veins have maintained the main characteristics unchanged.
This means that through the studying of the properties of limestone produced by these quarries in our days it could be possible to gain some new insight also into the material widely used in the Venetian architecture during past centuries.
Starting from these assumptions, the purpose of this work was to characterise the material extracted from the above mentioned limestone quarries so to obtain a complete understanding of its properties and therefore to achieve a better comprehension of the issue concerning the anamnesis, diagnostic, monitoring, conservation and restoration of numerous edifices in Venice.
In order to organise the working program, the collaboration with the Kamen Pazin quarries has been essential for the supply of Pietra d'Istria samples.
After an initial evaluation of material main physical characteristics, the dependence of ultrasonic velocity on the compression state has been verified using different waves frequencies (55 and 120 kHz).
Velocity and the correspondent oscillogram have been recorded every 10 MPa during compression tests till fracture.
Variations in ultrasonic waves velocity and shape have been analysed and studied so to identify any possible correlation with the load borne by the samples.
Thanks to the results obtained, it has been possible to achieve the purpose of this laboratory study, i. e. to gain some insight into main characteristics of the Orsera Pietra d'Istria and, in particular, how its ultrasonic properties vary over a range of effective pressure."
"The object of analysis is a sacral item, a silver tray for wine and water used in religious service. The tray is owned by the Croatian History Museum, Zagreb. The origin of the tray is unknown and there are two assumptions:
- that the tray originates from the Augsburg period, 17th century;
- that the tray is an imitation made at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century using galvano-plastic procedure.
This would question the value of the item. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the tray was carried out at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in Zagreb, in order to determine the technology of its production and thus, its origin as well. Due to the value of the item, the emphasis during analysis was on the application of non-destructive testing methods. Apart from the mentioned methods, the destructive instrumental methods were applied as well. These analyses have included a very small area of the tray so as not to damage its homogeneity and continuity. The paper describes the applied methods and the obtained results. The concluding mechanism about the interrelation of the obtained results with the possible technologies of producing the tray has been described and explained."
"The possibility to access samples from one side only make the Compton scattering based techniques a powerful method for NDT in medicine, in industrial applications, as well as to inspect fresco's substrates in the field of cultural heritage conservation. In the present paper, a new Compton imaging approach based on a combination of an experimental set-up, and a multivariate analysis of data is introduced in order to describe the density variation and the elemental composition in hidden layer of large size. An original backscattering configuration of the set-up, where source and detector are on the same axis, has been studied and applied to obtain a fast voxel-by-voxel scanning of a large surface, while the electronic density of the layer is described by the simultaneous analysis of the total number of backscattered photons (the Compton integral spectrum), collected for all the inspected voxel. The correlation analysis of the back scattered photons coming from neighboring voxel, has been performed in terms of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to describe the electron distribution of a Plexiglas layers with a hole and some inserts of different materials. It has been experimentally proved that the density distribution of a homogeneous material can be simply represented by a single PC even in the presence of a flaw. Moreover, the statistical analysis allows to describe the layer's elemental composition in terms of binary compound, two PCs, at one time."
"In the last years, a collaboration between the Physics Department of the University of Bologna and the Archaeological Museum of Bologna has been set up in order to examine archaeological artifacts using advanced NonDestructive Techniques (NDT). In the framework of this collaboration, bronze objects of the Etruscan section have been investigated in the past by means of Digital Radiography (DR) and 3D Computed Tomography (CT) techniques. Important results have been obtained concerning the inner structure and the assembly of the samples as well as the manufacturing techniques.
In this work, Egyptian artifacts have been considered to be investigated. The Egyptian collection of the Archaeological Museum of Bologna, with its 3500 objects, is one of the richest in Europe and in Italy.
Small mummies have been analyzed by means of an experimental 3D CT system arranged for this purpose at the Physics Department.
CT data allow a very fine discrimination among materials with different densities, providing an enormous amount of information not only about mummies, but also about coffins and ornaments eventually included. Moreover, multiple axial images and full 3D visualization of the samples allow to extract numerical measurements of size and position of all the items identified."
"Radiological investigations constitute a fundamental tool for the knowledge of the inner structure of works of art.
In the study of paintings the X-ray inspection allows to get significant information about the technique or the presence of underneath drawings as well as to assess the status of the artifact and of its frame. Moreover, the restorer can individuate early degradation damages and adopt the appropriate procedures for maintenance and restoration. On the other hand, the radiographic analysis of large paintings can demand large efforts and can be time expensive due to long exposition time, to the arrangement and development of the films and to the visual analysis of the details remarked in the radiograph.
Digital imaging techniques are under study in order to perform these operations quickly providing numerical images which can be processed in real time, recorded on different media or sent on computer networks.
This work reports preliminary results obtained with an experimental X-ray digital detector developed at the Physics Department of the University of Bologna for the radiographic inspection of paintings. Images of a test-painting have been grabbed and processed in order to estimate the detector performance with regard to the ordinary film-based technique."
"The measurement of the propagation velocity of ultrasonic pulses diffusing through the facings of the brick masonry was made possible by the use of test equipment consisting of the following electronically connected units:
- a generator of electric pulses coupled with the relevant piezoelectric transmitting probe.
- a receiving probe, similar to the transmitting probe, turning the mechanical vibrations, picked up on the surface of the wall facing, into electric signals to be amplified and synchronised.
- an electronic circuit measuring the time interval elapsing from the moment in which the pulse is emitted until it reaches the receiving probe.
- a time display circuit.
- an oscilloscope displaying the pulse shape."
"Iron gall ink corrosion of paper is one of the largest threat for our graphic patrimony. A great work has been done in this field to explain the possible mechanism of paper degradation and to propose curative methods [1,2,3,4]. The main degradation mechanism proposed in the literature is the following : iron gall ink prepared with different ingredients including tannins and vitriol causes both acidic hydrolysis and Fe2+ catalysed oxidation of cellulose. Paper turns brown and loses its mechanical properties. Yet the great variety of iron gall ink recipes [5,6], and the great variety of visual aspects of manuscripts suggest that many side effects could occur and contribute to the different aspects of paper degradation (colour changes, halos, mechanical properties).
Many analytical methods have been explored to analyse original iron gall inked manuscripts: among all of these, RAMAN makes it possible to identify the paper charges and the carbon inks, Gas Chromatography provides information on the evolution of gallic acid and/or the binder[7,8], SEM and/or PIXE analysis[2,9,10] are used to measure the elementary composition of the ink and the paper. But Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy is not fully explored in this field. Infra Red techniques have been largely used in the paper industry for identification of different types of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Research were mainly focused on paper made from wood and have been already reviewed elsewhere[11,12]. Yet, before the XIXth century, only hand paper sheets made from stuff were in use, and FTIR techniques may provide further information on this types of paper and/or on the writing itself. Some preliminary tests have been undertaken on original drawings, in order to identify the kind of ink used . Yet the identification of metallogallic or organic ink via FTIR spectroscopy appears rather difficult, since the main signal is due to the cellulose absorption. Mosini and all pointed out that FTIR spectroscopy provides informations on the cellulose oxidation stage. More recently, this technique has been used successfully to observe the paper carbonate content decrease which results from the transformation of calcium carbonate into calcium sulfate . FTIR spectra provides also useful information on the evolution of paper. Still we observed that the limits and the possibilities of the different FTIR techniques for the identification of metallogallic inked paper have not been explored, mainly because the interpretation of spectra is rather difficult : indeed, the cellulose remains the major component of the sample even in inked and damaged paper and only small discrepancies are observed between inked or damaged paper spectra and pure cellulose spectra. The first point to test is also the reproducibility of the measurements. Then small influences can be pointed out. Despite all this work, the interpretation of discrepancies measured on original samples remains difficult because the ink composition, the ink degradation and the paper degradation may have combined influences.
In this work, we measured FTIR spectra on original and laboratory probes by different techniques : reflectance microscopy, diffuse reflectometry with KBr (DRIFT), and transmission microscopy throught a fibre. Advantages and drawbacks of each technique will be discussed. Interpretation of spectra will be discussed."
"A detailed examination of the mechanical properties of various types of marble is attempted in the present experimental study with the aid of the Non Destructive Method of ultrasounds. The anisotropy directions are first determined, the various structure imperfections are then located and finally the values of the main mechanical constants are determined. The experimental results obtained are compared with the respective ones obtained from conventional destructive tension tests. The comparison is satisfactory and the discrepancies are of minor importance. The ultimate goal of this work is to check whether it is possible or not to apply the NDT method of ultrasonics for the reliable and safe study of the present mechanical status of various ancient monuments of the cultural heritage of Greece that are constructed from this specific type of marble, since the experts working for the restoration projects demand exact knowledge of the mechanical properties of the various structural elements of the monuments. The results appear to be encouraging."
"Building archaeology tries to reconstruct the history of existing buildings, using direct observations of the building themselves. The archaeologists identify and analyse the following main data: materials, building techniques, continuousness and gaps, demolition tracks, the way a specific element sticks to the next one, etc. as significant traces of the passage of the monument throughout the different historical periods.
Building archaeology is nowadays a well defined research field even if it is on the border line between different disciplines. It was born, in fact, inside the digging archaeology, but it developed autonomously throughout the studies of the elevated structures. This discipline must be compared, for what regards its results, with the instruments and methods of historians and critics of architecture; it works, both on the academic and professional field, within architectural conservation, studying the same objects; it uses scientific and technological instruments to describe, to analyse and to date materials and architectural structures.
Knowledge comes together with respect; the aim, here, it is to conserve the existing cultural asset of historical buildings for the future. For this reason the analytical techniques are non-destructive or micro-destructive and this is a kind of ethical issue. This is a big difference between building and excavations archaeology: in this latter case it is required to dig and somehow destroy the target objects in order to find them and have them visible; but a building already shows itself, its own surfaces, and materials, building techniques, stratigraphy may be studied with no impact (or minimal impact) on the object itself.
Also in the building archaeology, in any case, destruction could seem to be a better way to obtain a deep and sure knowledge of the "real history" of the monument. But destruction inevitably would erase a great part of the monument itself and what we could gain on the pure field of the analyses would be definitely paid on the field of the conservation. In fact, we have not a need of simple physical conservation but a deeper need to ensure chances of "more" knowledge for the future. Knowledge does not require destruction. It is rather necessary to imagine and experiment new non-destructive methods of investigating ancient architecture.
Not everything is visible in an existing building, but a lot of opportunities are open for the researcher who knows what has to be observed in it and how. Objects are dumb for the one who doesn't know how to question them; but they answer several answers to the one that approaches them with knowledge sake.
One of the archaeological question is: "WHEN?". Establishing dates is not the final target, but it is necessary for many other things:
- to obtain meaningful and thorough description of the development of the building;
- to examine every data inside its own historical context;
- to find explanations to the "WHY?" question, under the historical point of view;
- to better understand degradation processes in act or concluded.
The archaeologists have thus tried to elaborate the maximum range of possible analytical instruments, non destructive and of easy application, to obtain relative and absolute datings. We could of course ask: "why" the maximum range? Because in this way, if we can not apply one specific instrument, another one could be applied instead. Moreover, many dating methods supply only probabilistic results, signed by significant mistake ranges. The comparison between different results, derived from various analytical methods, will give us answers characterised by a wider truthfulness. Dates are therefore searched for, using a combination of several dating tools, where each one of them may be applied in different situations or to different elements, so they compensate each other for errors.
Many non-destructive tools have been developed or tuned-up since seventies. In Genoa (Italy) innovative experiences have been carried-on by ISCUM, and since late eighties by the "Laboratorio di Archeologia dell'Architettura" (Faculty of Architecture of University of Genoa). This research efforts made the tools described below available in Genoa and in its region (Liguria), while other groups are now elaborating them for different regions, so that several analytical and non destructive methods for the archaeological studies of ancient architecture are now employable in a very wide territory."
"Within its activity, the 'Specialisation School in Monuments Restoration' of the University of Genoa, has applied and experimented various methods of diagnostic and non destructive tests in the field of architectural conservation. These experiences, lasting from various years, regard several monuments of our territory, among which are: the 'Boschetto' abbey in Genoa, the castle, the civic tower and the "Valle Christi' abbey in Rapallo, the "Dragonara' castle at Camogli. Every time we tried to study and understand the characters of these ancient buildings, we used both empirical and scientific methods, sure that not only the second ones could be rigorous and useful for our needs. For this reason, among the tests we usually apply are, for example: archaeological enquires (stratigraphy, mensiochronology, chronotypology), archaeometrical analyses (mortars analysis for dating), rigorous geometrical surveys (longimetric, topographic and photogrammetric), characterisation of materials and decay conditions (directly and by laboratory tests). All these methods, of course, are common to many others experiences in this field, but we linked them to a wider look on the complex problem of the study and conservation of the ancient and precious traces of our architectural heritage. So, we never forget others forms of diagnostic studies necessary for a correct project of restoration, such as the historical and archives researches used as a counterpart for the results obtained from the previous methods. We try, for this reason, to put in a continuos dialogue all the instruments that traditional methods and contemporary technological development offer to sustain our efforts for the care of architectural heritage. The real problem, in fact, is to organise all the different enquires, the numerous tests and surveys, to obtain:
- a correct use of economic and technical resources, both in the analytical and in the practical phase of intervention;
- significant results regarding the study goals and intentions;
- a real advancement of knowledge in all the involved cultural fields.
We intend, therefore, to explain and show the outstanding results of the over mentioned studies and projects, offering to the international debate a chance to reflect and a real advancement of our attitude on the destiny of ancient monuments, in the contemporary cultural and social situation."
"The preservation planning of frescoes requires a precise knowledge about the building technique of the masonry, the microclimatic conditions inside the rooms, its variations due to the changes of the weather in addition to the measures of moisture and the map of its distribution. The case study presented in the paper regards the ancient castle of Malpaga, which is settled near Bergamo, Northern Italy. The building was begun in 14ø century, and it was accomplished in 15ø century by Bartolomeo Colleoni. Three layers of frescoes decorate the whole surfaces. Objectives of the analysis are the identification of the risk areas, because of the damage already visible and the microclimatic anomalous conditions, and the verification of the hypothesis about the causes of the moisture. Only NDT may be applied, because of the preciousness of the surfaces. The measures were repeated at different weather conditions and in the same days at different hours. The results revealed that the orientation, the disposition of the rooms, the number and wideness of the openings, contribute to modify the temperature of the air inside during the day, decreasing the threshold of dew in few hours and, above all, many times in a short period. The other measured variables are due to the differences of the thickness of the masonry and its component. The tests allowed to map the colder areas, where dew can condense, and the zones affected by rising damp. The results allowed to design the specific air-conditioning plan and those minimal interventions to decrease the effects of the air streams nearby the surfaces of the frescoes."
"The conservation and restoration works are, by definition, related to a number of diverse measurements. Moreover, by taking advantages of modern technologies, there are constantly new measuring methods in such works using highly sophisticated measuring equipment. It often happens in practice that measurements are carried out for the sake of measurements only. This habit stays behind us and fully defined requirements have been set on measurements. In preparing measurements, the following questions are asked:
- What is the objective of measurements? Can the measuring procedure fulfil the set requirements?
- Has the equipment used in measurements been calibrated?
The paper uses an example of measuring dampness to explain theoretically the uncertainty of the measuring result, i.e. the capability of a measuring system to assure the set requirements. "
"'Nostra Signora delle Grazie' Sanctuary is located in an outstanding position of Imperia (Italy) surroundings. This intact monumental area, built up at the end of 11th century, in the 1910 has been visited also by the president of USA F. Roosevelt during his pilgrimage in Italy."
"This paper presents the non-destructive testing investigations performed on the Clock Tower (Torre dell'Orologio), placed in San Marco Square in Venice. Various levels of damage, developed on the tower during its life, have been investigated in order to achieve a structural diagnosis which is determinant for the optimisation of the restorative intervention.
Comments on results obtained by "in situ" and by laboratory tests are reported. In particular, the preliminary phase of investigation, including magnetometric, endoscopic, sonic and ultrasonic surveys, flat-jack and relative humidity tests, is followed by specific chemical analysis.
The information collected has been also elaborated for the localisation of the critical points in which measuring instruments have been installed so to monitor the deformational behaviour of the structures with time.
The results presented, demonstrate the importance of non-destructive methods for the evaluation of the strength characteristics and of the static conditions of the structures under investigation."
"Waxes are translucent solid substances that melt easily. The source of natural waxes is very diverse: mineral, vegetable and animal. Waxes contain long chain hydrocarbons, acids, alcohols and esters or mixtures of these. Most wax components are fully saturated materials and this results in considerable chemical stability and waterproofing properties. Waxes have been used as adhesives, as painting media, for surface coating purposes, as a component of seals and as a modelling or casting materials. Nowadays waxes have many uses in conservation practice.
The history of detection and identification of waxes starts with simple tests of solubility and melting point. [1,2] These simple tests can be connected to modern methods of analysis to reveal more detailed information about chemical composition and physical properties of waxes. In our research melting point analyses have been made by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Solubility tests with changing polarity were used as sample pretreatment before Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Both of these methods (DSC and FTIR) have been used to identify waxes,[3,4,5,6] but in combination DCS and FTIR can provide qualitative characterisation of decomposition processes. Differential scanning calorimetry allows melting point determination and thermal characterisation and FTIR can provide molecular structural information of wax materials."
"The first Ecumenical Synod has decided for the Church the fact that it is allowed and evens well-received in front of God to paint icons. This icons are worshipped but not as God is venerated because it is not right so; for the worshipper it doesn't matter if the icon is made of a certain material or another, what it is only its image as a symbol. That is why the Holy icons are watching over the life of the Christian Orthodox because by blessing and by descending of the Holy Spirit over this pieces of work, they are not simple paintings any more, but they become altars in front of which we get down on our knees and pray the Saints from these icons to help us.
The icons are witnesses of the height, which the soul of a nation has reached living in pray, and contemplation of God. In them we can see the power of the spirituality of our forerunners, we can also see the beauty of the soul burning in fulfilling itself.
What can be more beautiful that this restore of the values by the painter, who rakes up in the valuable drawers of the nation and he has rounded it up through his magic eye of artist and through his work in front of the easel?
This paper discus the chemical analysis and metallographic examination of a copper alloy triptych (an altarpiece, in three panels side by side) from the 18th centuries discovered in Dobrudja Romania. Chemical analysis was undertaken using Optical Emission Spectrometry and together with the microstructure represent a complete investigation of the sample.
Since every cultural object is in some way unique, the conservator's first responsibility is usually to examine and evaluate it thoroughly. After the scientific and technical analysis the conservator establish restoration technique and conservative methods of treatment."
"Load bearing timber structures are exposed during their life to some degradation factors which lead, in the absence of appropriate maintenance interventions, to the loss of their structural integrity and serviceability. But the consequences are even more when the structures are parts of historical and/or artistic buildings because their cultural evidence also could be endangered or completely lost. The paper presents a particular procedure for the in situ evaluation of timber structures which was developed on the basis of several years of experience both in scientific research and on building yard. Reference is made to the roof structures of the so called "Guarini's Towers"--Racconigi Castle (Northern Italy)"
"This research is a part of a diagnostic work that was carried out on Palazzo Marchesi D'Amico of Milazzo in Sicily. The results of the diagnosis are now going to be used as base for the conservation project.
Aim of this work is to find correlation between the results of ultrasonic measurements obtained on two columns of the palace and the mechanical characteristics of constructional materials, taking also into account their anisotropy, in order to obtain information on the mechanical behaviour of the two columns in a non destructive way.
The constituent materials of the columns are sandstone, of a type called in Sicily "arenaria". The material was analysed by means of the following analytical techniques: X Ray Diffraction, observation of cross sections under the optical microscope, analysis at the Scanning Electron Microscope.
Longitudinal velocity at the frequency of 50 KHz was measured on three sections at different heights of the two columns. A tomography analysis was done on a section of a column. Since it was not possible to take sample from the columns to carry out the mechanical testing, were founded a cave from which was token three different blocks of arenaria that was similar, but non equal of course with respect the material of the columns. The difference was detected both by ultrasonic measurements and by petrographycal observations.
Compression mechanical tests have been performed on the material of the cave and static and dynamic modules (obtained at 1 MHz) were compared.
This study is devote to set up a suitable methodology for studying the mechanical behaviour of the material of the analysed particular of the monument, to apply when it is not possible to carry out mechanical testing directly on the same material and to optimise the number of tests on the same material, considering the low availability of materials in the conservation activities."
"Many scholars researching manuscripts are interested in the characterisation of the type of inks found on such manuscripts as this adds vital information to the identification of the age and source of a manuscript. Our knowledge about the composition of the inks used in manuscripts is limited and even more importantly in order to analyse the composition of the inks we had to use destructive chemical analysis. In most cases this meant the extraction and analysis of actual samples from the original manuscript. With old and valuable collections even the use of very small samples is not a viable option as archivists and librarians will not allow any intentional destruction of the document, however small that it is.
An automated computer-based technique for the characterization of inks of unknown chemical composition, offers a desirable and non-destructive method that can be applied to most manuscripts. In this paper we present such a new method, which is based on advanced digital image processing techniques and results to an automated and non-destructive examination of manuscripts by providing visual analysis of ink samples.
Our techniques have been applied to inks found on Byzantine manuscripts. These inks were characterized through the creation of computation models using only visual information. The images used in our experiments were taken within the visible and near infrared spectrum. "
"X-ray radiography (XR) is a non-destructive testing technology. This paper presents some practical cases in which X-ray radiography is used and X-ray films are highly informative in the state of conservation and the ancient manufacturing techniques. These cases show that X-ray radiography is available in the study of cultural relics, which is made of varieties of materials."
"X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been used for the investigation of archaeological and historical materials for some fifty years; though a great variety of spectrometers has been successfully employed, it is only by portable systems that non-destructivity - one of the most attractive features of this technique - can be fully exploited; thanks to the possibility of working in situ, portable spectrometers have virtually extended the range of use of XRF to any type of object. This paper considers the most significant applications published so far with a special focus on the relationship between portability and other instrument characteristics such as, for instance, detection limits. It also discusses whether spectrometers used to investigate archaeological and historical materials are actually suitable for this purpose or, one could say, whether the designer has clear ideas on the analytical needs in this field. Finally it considers the possibility of improving the spectrometers' characteristics and establishing new analytical approaches thanks to recent advances in detector technology."
"Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely applied during the recent restoration of the Façade of St. Peter's Basilica to evaluate the condition of conservation. The photogrammetric restitution data have been analysed and integrated with GPR results. A procedure for the interpretation and processing of the experimental data has been developed, supplying a restitution of a 3D geometric model of the structural element studied, in a CAD platform. The GPR surveys generated significant information on the internal structure of the monument concerning, travertine stone, masonry structure, plugs, cramps irons, cavities, detachments, which otherwise would have been obtained exclusively through a destructive analysis. Detailed information on the thickness and the geometry of the travertine blocks and the repaired plugs has been obtained. A total of 4000 m2 of the monument surface has been mapped, including the large pilaster strips, the large columns and the clocks located on the top of the Façade. The extensive application of the non-destructive technique allows a deep knowledge on the condition of the monument."
" [The British Museum's database of materials test results] contains the results of the 'Oddy' tests and pH tests carried out on materials in the Museum during the previous five years. Some materials release volatile components (solvents, organic acids etc) which, in an enclosed space, may reach levels of concentration capable of damaging objects, corroding metals or harming organic matter, for example. Materials testing is carried out to help determine if (materials are safe to use with objects inside showcases, packing crates or stores) "
"The COPRAC project was set up at the end of January 1998, and is working to provide good practice guidelines for libraries and archives wishing to initiate co-operative preservation activities, or to develop existing activities further. By providing an overview of current and recent co-operative activity, it will provide a rationale for action which will help to make the most effective use of resources at local and regional levels and so help those responsible for developing national preservation strategies. The main aims of the research are to produce good practice guidelines for libraries and archives wishing to develop co-operative preservation activities with other information organisations, and to make recommendations for future co-operative preservation activities at local, regional and national levels."
"A closer examination of some results of the damage survey of post-1800 archive and library material conducted at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek and the State Archives of the Netherlands carried out by Sophia Pauk by CNC order"
"The Heritage Health Index is the first comprehensive survey ever conducted of the condition and preservation needs of all U.S. collections held in the public trust. The project was conceived and implemented by Heritage Preservation, a national nonprofit organization, in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services, an independent federal agency. "The survey was planned with the advice of 35 associations and federal agencies that serve collecting institutions. The questionnaire was developed in consultation with 66 leading collections professionals. In August 2004, the Heritage Health Index survey was distributed to more than 14,500 archives, libraries, historical societies, museums, archaeological repositories, and scientific research collections1, which included institutions of all sizes from every U.S. state and territory. There was a 24% response rate overall and a 90% response rate from 500 of the nations largest and most significant collections."
"This publication is a translated and revised edition of the Richtlijnen voor de conservering van leren en perkamenten boekbanden issued in 1995 by the KB and the Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science (since April 1997: Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage (ICN)). "The guidelines set out in this publication, make it possible to classify types of damage to bookbindings. Also described are the various stages of actual conservation treatment which can be determined. Some chapters are devoted to related subjects, explaining in more general terms the problems involved in bookbinding conservation."
The Dutch national programme for preservation of library material, Metamorfoze, is an initiative of the Netherlands Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. It is coordinated by the National Preservation Office of the Netherlands (BCB) of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague. "Metamorfoze focuses on the preservation of manuscripts, books, newspapers and periodicals of Dutch origin from the 1840-1950 period in libraries with a preservation function. This material, which is an important part of our national cultural heritage, is threatened by the internal decay of paper."
A searchable database of outgassing data of materials
intended for spacecraft. Includes data on maximum total
mass loss (TML) maximum collected volatile condensable
material (CVCM). Categories: adhesives, cable insulation
and shrink tubing, conformal coating, electrical
components, electrical shields, films and sheet materials,
foams, greases and lubricants, lacing tape and cord cable
ties, laminates and circuit boards, marking materials and
inks, miscellaneous, molding compounds, paints, lacquers,
and varnishes, potting compounds, rubber and elastomers,
tapes, thermal greases
"This CRB Note briefly describes several models for creating a state historic preservation trust or conservancy program. It summarizes the structures and functions of the historic preservation programs in the states of Washington, Florida, Vermont, Utah, and New Mexico. Each state has a program to fulfill the requirements of federal historic preservation law. Some have created another organization, either a quasi-public agency or a stand-alone non-profit agency, to carry out other cultural resource preservation programs using some mixture of public and private funding. This Note also looks at three "trust" models for historic preservation. It describes the British National Trust (a private charity) and the National Trust for Historic Preservation (a non-profit organization created by Congress). It also describes the New Jersey Historic Trust, which is a non-profit organization created by state law and funded with public money. The New Jersey Trust is part of a constitutionally-mandated program of open space, agricultural lands, and historic resource conservation. One California agency could be a model for a cultural and historic preservation entity. The Coastal Conservancy is a well-regarded independent board within the Resources Agency, whose structure could be adapted to serve as a trust for preserving cultural and historic resources.
"Issues to consider in developing a new approach for preserving California's historic resources include the location and structure of the new entity, and restraints on the use of public money.
[Note: I can't resist pointing out that this most interesting and informative report was written by a secondary school student. --wh]
"The intent of the website is to make principles and terminology of technical art history clear and accessible to the nonspecialist and to strengthen the appreciation, interpretation, and preservation of Old Master paintings."
"This exhibition presents the perspectives of curators, conservators and visitors regarding the process of restoring Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione's 17th century painting: The Immaculate Conception with Saints Francis of Assisi and Anthony of Padua. This project is the online extension of a unique physical exhibition , "Restoring a Masterwork" which allows the public to observe restoration process exhibit from September 14 through October 24, 1999 in the Institute's galleries.
"The site's "Daily Log" provides up-to-date text, photo and video documentation of the ongoing restoration process. "What's Wrong with This Painting?" takes you behind the scenes to discover what happens to a painting over time. "Frequently Asked Questions" gives you the answers you seek. "The Life of the Painting" traces this work's history from the 1500s.
"Note: The Restoration Online site will remain available for reference after the conclusion of the restoration. For questions contact Scott Sayre, Director of Media and Technology, email@example.com"
"This exhibition celebrates the myriad efforts made over time to preserve information. Centering on three major facets--paper, books, and digital (or electronic) technologies-- the exhibition illustrates how inseparable the drive to retain recorded information has been from the basic urge to record."
"Discover what happens when certain sensitive crystals are exposed to the environment. The first mineral, realgar, crumbles on exposure to light, while the second mineral, tachyhydrite, dissolves in high humidity....
"This time-lapse video was the result of a collaboration between the CMN and the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI). The Canadian Museum of Nature is a world leader in understanding damage and deterioration in collections...."
Including: decorative arts, furniture, paintings, paper, textiles and conservation science
See also Finding People In and Around Conservation
"This assessment tool is funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Sciences, and is designed to address the needs of cultural heritage institutions by helping to preserve and maintain the functionality of their audiovisual materials.
AvSAP is free and accessible to the public, providing a series of questions designed to collect data about collections and assess the conditions of audiovisual items. Users may download AvSAP and host it on their own SQL server, or access it on the web. The goal of this assessment tool is to help collections managers develop a prioritized preservation plan for their audiovisual materials, including, but not limited to audio recordings, films, and videotapes, and to educate individuals on extending the lives of their collections with the resources at hand.
The outcome of using AvSAP includes a refined knowledge about developing an audiovisual preservation plan. This tool ranks audiovisual items in order of treatment need, providing users with a sense of what items need the most immediate care; AvSAP ultimately allows faculty and staff members to make more effective preservation decisions with regard to their audiovisual materials."
"... preservation and conservation are central to the mission of all archaeological work. On these pages we hope to share with you what it's like to work in the field on an archaeological project, as well as give you a better understanding of the work conservators do.
An interesting site largely concerned with the authenticity of the Mansoor collection. It includes reports and data concerning scientific analysis in the authentication of Egyptian artifacts.
"Biographical and methodological information about art historians can be difficult to find. Tucked away in obscure obituaries or foreign-language Festschriften, the basics of where an art historian trained or who his/her major influence was, or even what methodology the scholarship employs are often impossible to discern. This database is designed to give researchers a beginning point to learning the background of major art historians of western art history."
"... [T]he place to find projects, associates, expertise or resources for your restoration business or organization. In association with The GUILD of Fine Craftsmen and Artisans and in an alliance with Clem Labine's Traditional Building Magazine, we are furnishing networking tools to the field. Networking has always been the key to success in this diverse and dispersed field, but not everyone has the time or wants to spend the money.
"... [A] searchable network of over 2,400 local restoration projects, or our searchable directory of over 3,400 restoration professionals. You can submit your own Directory Listing or you can post your activites or availability in the Project Network easily and at no cost."
"Numerous federal and state agencies provide funding for preservation projects in one form or another. [This page] is a listing of those federal agencies and those state agencies in New England and neighboring states that provide some funding for preservation. Each listing also provides the agency's address and phone number, a brief description of the areas of preservation that it funds, and what deadlines are known. ..."
"Preservapedia is a free-content encyclopedia and knowledge base. Unlike other online encyclopedias, Preservapedia focuses specifically on technical material related to cultural resource management and its allied fields"
JPM provides a free information exchange for all those professionally or academically involved with jewellery: Retailers, Manufacturers, Dealers in antique and estate jewellery, Appraisers, Jewellery historians, Journalists and authors specialising in jewellery-related subjects. JPM can be thought of as a combination of specialist forum, information resource and conduit for continuous professional education (CPD). This web site is open to all, but you must be professionally involved in the jewellery industry and register to use the Information Exchange and get full use of downloads.
Site developed by marine archeological conservation students at Evtek
"AMIEN is dedicated to providing, without regard to esthetics, the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials. The information is based on the most current scientific knowledge from peer-reviewed sources regarding quality, durability, and health hazards, and on original research conducted at AMIEN. The information is not prescriptive: AMIEN does not tell artists how to make art. We want artists to be able to make intelligent choices about any material used to make art, and we want to help artists make art safely. "Our goal is to reach as many artists as possible, amateur, student, and professional alike as in order to fulfill the mission of AMIEN."
An online exhibition about traditional drawing materials, derived from an exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art to coincide with the 2000 AIC meeting.
"Information on iron gall ink; its importance in (art)history; and its slow, self-destructing properties known as iron gall ink corrosion. The latter is a major threat to our cultural heritage and of concern to people throughout the world. This site was developed to inform collection keepers, conservators, scientists and any other interested parties of ongoing research on all aspects of iron gall ink corrosion.
"...hosted by the European Commission on Preservation and Access in Amsterdam. It was created in collaboration with the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam and The Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage in Amsterdam. Contributions have come from The Netherlands State Archives in The Hague, the Teyler Museum in Haarlem, Thompson Conservation Laboratory in Portland, Oregon, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) in Delft, Shell Research & Technology Centre, Amsterdam, de Koninklijke Bibliotheek (the National Library of The Netherlands) in The Hague, and the Municipal Archives in Rotterdam."
"Thirty-five years ago, a unique collection of technical cards on ancient metal structures and deterioration processes was created by the famous French metallurgist, Albert France-Lanord, for the ICCROM course on "Fundamental Principles of Conservation"
This collection has recently been updated and digitized. It is now available online
"The McCrone Atlas of Microscopic Particles is an online reference for analytical microscopists needing to identify an unknown, or who simply want to learn more about a particular substance."
"On plaster conservation there is little expertise available. There is little research and few publications. ... [The project is] working on methods for preservation and conservation of plaster. Several products and techniques are tested on the extensive collection of plaster statues of the studio Salu in Laeken.
"In a first phase [the project] has worked on structural problems such as fractures, rusty appearance,and stability problems. The second phase focuses on the various surface treatments and finishes of gypsum: patinas, varnishes, color wash, paint, bronze rings and other forms of polychromy.
The Aim of the project is to develop: expertise within the team; conservation and restoration techniques; and a simple methodology to work for the preservation and conservation of this fragile heritage.... Gypsum is also used in the documentation of architectural and sculptural elements of a building during and after restoration. Upon completion of the project, a manual [will be] published by VIOE."
"Companies manufacturing and supplying artist's materials, from the late Eighteenth Century onward, are known as Artists' Colourmen. They marked their products, canvases, stretchers, and boards, for instance, with individual and characteristic stamps, stencils, labels and embossed marks. These often carry the company name and address, which can be used to indicate the source and general date of manufacture of the canvas, board or stretcher associated with an artwork. We have compiled the occurrences of these stamps, stencils, labels and marks found on artworks in the National Gallery of Victoria as a resource for study and interest."
The database offers several views of the data, accessed by browsing the list of all Colourmen found on NGV Collection works; searching the Colourmen data by keyword; and searching for art works with Colourmen information.
"As part of one of the projects under the Designing for the C21st AHRC/EPSRC initiative we will design and produce prototype fabrics, for the structural conservation of easel paintings and as artists canvas. In consultation with conservators and artists, then by testing, modeling (Warwick University) and working with fabric manufacturers (Heathcote). We will revisit the specification requirements of canvas fabrics including: long term stability, mechanical properties, moisture permeability, texture, handling properties, aesthetic and commercial considerations."
"The main aim of the PROPAINT project is: To provide conservation staff and stakeholders with innovative protection treatments used as a preventive conservation measure for paintings during exhibition, storage and transit. To achieve this aim, the following research themes will be followed:
- Evaluation of the protective effect of microclimate frames for paintings.
- Evaluation of the physical-chemical state and hence the protective effect of varnishes on paintings generally and in microclimate frames
"To preserve the paintings as close as possible to the artists' original expression is a central focus for national authorities, museum administrators and conservators.
"An important part of this work is to protect the paintings against the degrading influences of the various indoor environments. Specially designed microclimate frames are increasingly being used for this purpose.
"There is a growing concern about the nature of the microclimate, which develops over time in these enclosed spaces and its potential for damage to the paintings.
"The main aim of the PROPAINT project is to develop innovative protection treatments used as a preventive conservation measure for paintings during exhibition, storage and transit. The PROPAINT project will investigate the protective effect of microclimate frames for paintings. PROPAINT will undertake research on the protective effect of varnishes applied to paintings generally and inside microclimate frames specifically. Measurements of the state of microenvironments in microclimate frames and the potential deteriorating effects on paintings will be made both in the laboratory and in the field by using, for the first time simultaneously, several dosimeters developed in previous EC projects. The appropriateness and synergies of their integrated use will be evaluated. The results of the project will allow improved design of microclimate frames to offer best possible microclimates for conservation of paintings during exhibition, storage and transit. The project will contribute with improved comparative knowledge about microclimate effects on varnishes applied to paintings as remediation surface treatments. The project results will also contribute to preventive conservation measures and standards for microclimate control of paintings."
"The PROPAINT project: Improved protection of paintings during exhibition, storage and transit, is implemented within the EU 6th Framework Programme, Priority 8.1 "Policy oriented research". The project includes 7 partners and 3 subcontractors that are research organisations, conservation schools, museums and enterprises. The project has an End User Group consisting of 9 museums."
"The Tate AXA Art Modern Paints Project (TAAMPP) is a three year project funded by AXA Art Insurance, which enables a research team based at Tate to continue its evaluation of the effects of cleaning acrylic paintings. Acrylic paints and primers have been widely used by artists since the early 1960s. They account for approximately 50% of paint sales over the last thirty years and they are the most common priming medium for modern canvases. It is estimated that acrylic materials are present in 30% of the Tate's collection of modern and contemporary paintings. Although there is no sign that acrylic paints are any less stable than oil paints—in fact, they seem to be less likely to yellow and crack with age—they will require different conservation treatments from oils because their different composition."
"With the hope of starting a discussion as to how Pemulen TR2 can and is used by other conservators, we're posting our preparation methods and case histories of use."
Includes MSDS, treatment reports, and cases studies using Pemulen emulsion and gel
See also, above:
"The objectives for the thematic network "Transitional Metals in Paper (MIP)" are:
- To obtain a vertical integration of expertise, products, technology and policy involved in the preservation/conservation of our European cultural heritage on paper (cellulose and lingo-cellulose materials) related to transitional metals and their role in paper ageing and conservation and preservation.
- To combine present local networks in our European Thematic Network.
- To exchange present knowledge related to paper conservation technology and to establish needs for innovative paper conservation strategies consists of assessment methods and treatment technologies on a European level.
- To disseminate information to the end-users (e.g., from Museums, Archives and Libraries) frequently and to act as the interface between science, end-user and supplier. To define gaps in our knowledge solving the problems on deterioration of paper caused by transitional metals."
"EVTEK Paper Identification Database has been created for collecting data for historic and modern paper characterisation and identification. Evidence of historic paper making and paper mills will also be collected. Not only data from water marks, but also details of laid and chain lines characteristic of hand made rag paper are documented. Size, colour and acidity measurements, fiber morphology and pulp type as well as paper sizing and other components in paper have their places in the database. Also images and detailed images of the paper samples are added to the database. One can do searches by several choices.
"Besides the Database we collect information of the history of paper mill existence in different countries as well as detailed information of identification of papers from various mills (as PDF files). The Paper Identification Database is created by voluntary work. It has been created by lecturer István Kecskeméti (paper conservation, EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, EVTEK Institute of Art and Design, Finland) and technically realised by students Samuli Toivonen, Paavo Pekkanen and Samu Lindholm in supervision of lecturer Aarne Klemetti from EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, EVTEK Institute of Technology. The first samples in to the database in November and December 2005 were loaded by 11 paper conservator students of EVTEK Institute of Art and Design and their lecturer Istvan Kecskeméti. The work will continue during spring 2006 as we will concentrate in historic Finnish made papers. We are inviting partners from different countries to add data of historic papers from their own region."
"[Digital photographs of a] collection of beautiful handmade papermaking moulds, some dating back to 1817. The collection amounts to about 200 pairs of which I now have digital photographs of 60 pairs"
"Papermaking research conducted by Tim Barrett and coauthors using nondestructive instrumentation and methods to determine chemical composition, color, and thickness of historical papers to learn more about why some papers, often the oldest, are very light in color and stable while others are discolored and much less permanent."
"In the fall of 2010, we completed a new analysis of 1,578 papers using only nondestructive techniques. Book, manuscript, and printmaking papers made between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries were tested using XRF (X-ray fluorescence) and UV-Vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared) spectrometers. For each specimen, we gathered data on gelatin and alum concentration; calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) concentration (in whatever form they appeared, such as oxides, salts, or metal fragments); color; sheet dimensions and thickness; paper strength; publication (date, title, author, country, etc.); and quality of materials and workmanship. We photographed each item and, for some of the specimens, judged the likelihood that they had been washed or resized. We also tracked whether the same book contained sheets with differing grades of materials and workmanship. All research methods and results of the study are included in this website. Some details on the development of instrumentation and techniques have been published or are forthcoming in cited journals. This work was made possible by funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services, The University of Iowa, and the Kress Foundation, with additional support from several
"European papers we tested had higher gelatin and Ca concentrations than papers made in subsequent centuries. They were also thicker and lighter in color (CIE L*a*b*s-value equivalents). Other plots indicate that superior materials and workmanship were generally associated with higher levels of gelatin and Ca, lighter color, and lower levels of alum and Fe.
"We also studied the ability of three technologies to nondestructively monitor paper characteristics during conservation treatment: XRF to estimate concentrations of Ca, Fe, and alum; and ultrasonic and/or UV-Vis-NIR to predict paper-strength properties."
"A conference held by the Institute of English Studies, School of Advanced Study, University of London, in association with the Institute of Historical Research and the Institute of United States Studies (12-13 March, 2001). The conference was organised by Dr David McKitterick F.B.A. (Wren Librarian, Trinity College, Cambridge) and Mr Ian Willison (Senior Research Fellow, Institute of English Studies, University of London).
Do We Want to Keep our Newspapers? was inspired by the de-accessioning (following microfilming) of newspapers from research libraries in the United States, Great Britain and elsewhere, which has recently received wide publicity, following Nicholson Baker's `Deadline' in The New Yorker (24 July, 2000) and articles in The Times, the TLS and other papers. In response to this publicity, the British Library suspended the disposal of hard copies of foreign newspapers, pending an internal appraisal of the condition of early microfilm.
The conference reviewed the issues involved from a number of perspectives including those of curators, conservators and researchers, and considered ways forward for preserving access to the printed record of the popular press. The issues raised have received further ventilation in Baker's recent book, Double Fold: Libraries and the Assault on Paper (Random House, 2001), and an article by Dr David McKitterick in the 1 June 2001 TLS.
The proceedings of Do We Want to Keep our Newspapers? will be published by the Office of Humanities Communication in September, 2001. The unedited proceedings of the conference are available on this site with the agreement of their authors. The views expressed are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of any of the host institutions.
See also another revision with 1-3. Film Identification Edge Markings and Code Notches including "Sheet Film Code Notches and Emulsion Number"
"Main research topics: methodology of kinetic experiments on the degradation of cellulose and paper". See especially the Publications page.
"The research connected with the problem of acidic paper is mainly performed in the Research Laboratory on the Permanence and Degradation of Paper, Reg. Lab. for Phys-Chem. Analyses and Struct. Research (the Head - prof. dr hab. A. Baranski). The following research is currently done:
- kinetics of cellulose and paper degradation,
- methodology of artificial ageing tests,
- deacidification of paper in the laboratory and on large scale.
The Laboratory is a part of University Center for Chemical Protection of Archive and Library Collections. Existence of this research unit is a consequence of making more formal ties between the Jagiellonian Library, the Department of Chemistry of the Jagiellonian University and the Regional Laboratory for Physicochemical Analyses and Structural Research, Krakow, Poland."
"Silver mirroring is a bluish metallic sheen appearing on the surface of silver based photographs as result of ageing. One of the photographic processes most affected by silver mirroring is that of silver gelatin glass negatives, the most common photographic negative process between the 1880s and the 1920s when they were slowly replaced by nitrate and acetate negatives. The present research was initiated by the findings of plates that, beside the usual silver mirroring along the negative edges, had mirroring stains at the centre of the plate whose shape matched the creases of the glassine envelope in which the plates were stored. An informal inquiry among photographic conservators revealed that patterns connected to the enclosure material are rather common and they are not necessarily related to the poor quality of the material. Although silver mirroring has been observed since the early years of silver gelatin photography and it has been investigated again and again in the course of the XX century, confusion is still present on its chemical composition, on the compounds responsible for its formation and on the reasons for the specific patterns.
"The aim of this work is to better understand the mechanisms of both local and pattern formation of silver mirroring in order to set the choice of best suited enclosure materials and storage conditions on a more rational basis. This work is focused on silver gelatin glass negatives but the results and models here presented can be easily applied to other photographic processes exhibiting silver mirroring.
"The first chapter is a gallery of possible patterns found on silver gelatin glass negatives. This is first of all a visual definition of silver mirroring. Moreover, as patterns do not arise by coincidence but they are the result of simple physical processes, the visual features of silver mirroring suggest the causes for its formation. The models about silver mirroring developed in the course of the XX century are reviewed in the second chapter. The outcome is the definition of the open questions on silver mirroring: the detailed microscopic processes leading to its local formation on one side and the macroscopic processes leading to the pattern formation on the other side. In order to answer the first question new experiments on the chemical composition and the physical structure of the silver mirroring layer were performed. Based on these results some improvements to the well-established oxidation-migration-re-aggregation model of local silver mirroring formation are proposed in the third chapter.
"The reasons for the arising of the usual silver mirroring edge patterns are investigated in the fourth chapter. A mathematical model based on the diffusion and reaction of gases explaining the formation of both historically and artificially produced edge patterns is presented.
"The fifth chapter deals with the formation of inner patterns of silver mirroring. In this case, it was not possible to propose a unique model explaining the formation of the many different inner patterns that are likely to be found on silver gelatin glass negatives. The case of negatives with mirroring stains resembling the wrinkles of glassine envelopes is examined in details and a mechanism of formation is proposed. Finally, in the conclusions, it is stated which are the contributions of this dissertation to the development of strategies to prevent or mitigate silver mirroring and which are the questions on which more research is needed."
"Adopt a Photo is a temporary space for homeless photos. ... A goal of Adopt a Photo is for a long-lost photograph to be claimed by a descendant. Although it may be unlikely that a photograph will be found by a family member, it is hoped that all these photographs will be adopted by a caring custodian. Until then, Adopt a Photo will give them a home in cyberspace so that people all over the world can see, appreciate, and value the lives represented in the photographs. The photos are a gentle reminder that all humanity is interconnected and that even though we may know little about the person(s) in the pictures, we can recognize that at some point in time someone was proud of an accomplishment or celebrating an important moment."
"How to make a film retriever out of scrap 35mm film useful for those times you rewound the film back into the cassette but wish to pull it back out for some reason or another."
Papers by Paul Messier include:
Papers by Jiuan-Jiuan Chen include
"Possibly the largest collection of its kind in the world, this collection of over 5,000 samples was started in the late 1990s to provide, for scholars and connoisseurs, an objective baseline for dating and authenticating photographic prints. Papers typically enter the collection in manufacturer sample books or original manufacturer packages. Samples from 65 manufacturers comprising over 360 brands have mostly been fully catalogued by manufacturer, brand, surface texture and reflectance. Aside from the ongoing photograph conservation research applications, the collection also serves the intrinsically valuable purpose of preserving the materials of the 20th century photographer."
"The collection has provided samples for a recent backprinting survey and has also been used for a number of studies that have significantly expanded the understanding of photographic papers. These projects include a survey for optical brightening agents, measurements of inorganic components in the baryta layer (in collaboration with the Getty Conservation Institute), paper fiber identification (in collaboration with the Museum of Modern Art and Integrated Paper Services) and stability of optically brightened paper (in collaboration with the Art Conservation Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University)."
"The collection is supplemented by a reference library documenting materials and techniques. A webcast presentation on the collection and associated research applications is available from the Library of Congress."
"Major photograph conservation studies based on the reference collection, are listed by general topic, main collaborators and date." [See also: current research agenda]
Plart came into being as a polyfunctional space dedicated to scientific research and technological innovation for the recovery, restoration and conservation of works of art and design in plastic. It is the realisation of a dream with its roots in the past, and the fruit of the coming together of business culture, passion for contemporary art, and collecting objects and works of art in plastic.
An idea that has grown over time, a long and meticulous journey which has led businesswoman and art collector Maria Pia Incutti to create the first centre of excellence in Italy where plastic, art, research and technology fuse to create a place unique of its kind: Plart. From the collection of objects and works of art in plastic, there arose the need - also felt by museums, private collectors, and operators in the art world - to go into more detailed research on non-destructive methods for the conservation of artefacts made from polymeric material, which deteriorates with time.
The development of these procedures, in addition to having important applications in cataloguing and restoration, is our main objective in the technological development of industrial products based on thermoplastic and thermosetting materials.
It's mission is
- to create a studio-laboratory for restoring plastic materials.
- to organise meetings, visits, and guided tours to create a culture of polymeric materials aware of, and respecting, the environment.
- to become a museum space open to academics and the general public with an ever changing exhibition of the items in the Incutti Collection and others.
- to create a specialist library on the world of plastic, equipped with multimedia support.
"Preserv'Art is an interactive database of products and equipments used for the conservation and protection of artifacts, works of art and archival documents. It was developed for collection managers, archivists, curators, conservators, artists, museum technicians, students, teachers ....
"Supporting the vital work of law enforcement agencies worldwide, The Art Loss Register helps with the recovery of stolen art, antiques and valuables, discourages art theft and prevents fraud. Founded in January 1991 on the initiative of the insurance and art and antiques industries and operating as a commercial venture, the ALR is a significant development in the fight against art theft."
- to collect and disseminate information about incidents and trade involving stolen cultural property, an area of illicit activity that is second only to trade in drugs and that amounts to some 4 - 6 billion USD per year (according to FBI, March 1999).
- to offer a source of related information, e.g., publications, security products, safety and salvage plans, addresses of and links to related organizations.
Material of interest to anyone researching the history textile industry in England. See especially Lancashire Textile Project
See also Getty Abstracts 2.4 above
Written by the author of CRC Handbook of Solubility Parameters and Other Cohesion Parameters, this page comprises a rich collection of pointers to resources on the topic, including both online and print citations
"BRENDA is a comprehensive database of enzymes maintained by the Institute of Biochemistry at the University of Cologne. Scientists collect and evaluate enzyme function data from primary literature sources. The site has recently been updated with new enzymes and an entirely new search engine. Various searches can be performed, including enzyme name, organism, or EC number. Links to literature citations, two dimensional images, and other databases are included for many of the enzymes. Academic and nonprofit use is free; commercial users must acquire a license. [AL]"
Measurements/Mathematics in Chemistry, Safety in the Lab, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Reactions, Atomic Structure, Molecular Modeling, Periodic Table, Matter Density, Energy, Entropy, States of Matter, Stoichiometry, Equilibrium/Acids , Bases/Electrochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Alchemy, Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Student Resources: A collection of links aimed at students of the subject., Practical Applications, Monitoring Water Quality, Chemistry: Environmental Concerns, Chemistry Journals, Ethics and Science
Covers methods for art examination and documentation, specifically targeting innovative low-budget scientific solutions
"How was it made? What are the materials? Is it authentic? How much was it restored or repaired, and when? These are some of the questions posed by museum curators who must decide on conservation or exhibition strategies.
"Here you will find professional colour tools, new products, information on colour developments and research in the field of colour, NCS colour system, colour psychology, education, technical solutions and how to use colour in the environment.
The understandable international colour order system for colour selection, specification, communication and control of colour in design, architecture, research, marketing and manufacturing. NCS is entirely based on how the human being see colour.
The Scandinavian Colour Institute is responsible for and the owner of the NCS Natural Color System."
"The mission of this project is to provide working knowledge of polymers and related concepts to students of all levels, from K-12 to graduate-level and the general public as well, and to do so on multiple levels, so that the program will be both informative and entertaining to both beginners and more advanced students of polymer science. This program aims not only to provide an introduction to polymer science for those pursuing scientific careers, but to provide information in such a way that will interest the non-scientist as well, to the end of helping to create a more scientifically literate general public."
"A Specialized Wiki with Repository on Salt Damage to Cultural heritage
"SaltWiki, an Internet-based, editorially-managed information structure and a new tool for knowledge transfer and research, provides information on salts and damage to cultural heritage caused by salts.
"SaltWiki consists of two areas:
- The actual Wiki on the subject of "damage caused by salts" which is available to all: debates on the subject take place through its discussion pages, offering readers the opportunity to comment on content and thus contribute to a continuous improvement.
- A repository (the same for the German and English version) as data storage for the purposes of research and instruction. Here authors can find, for example, analysis data, physical and chemical constants, and also graphics, photos, short videos and published and unpublished literature. In addition, the repository is used as a virtual research environment on the subject of "salt damage to cultural heritage" and supports a sustainable preservation of scientific data and allows re-use.
"Since February 2009, support from the German Research Foundation (DFG) has made it possible for this to be carried out at the Hornemann Institute of the HAWK (University of Applied Sciences and Arts) in Hildesheim, Germany.
"All those interested in research and practice are invited to take part and become author. See author registration page"
See especially the Conservation Channel
noun; verb (used without object) -bled, -bling
- free flowing conversation, about art, for anyone.
- a place where everyone is invited to join an open, ongoing discussion--no art degree required.
ArtBabble was conceived, initiated, designed, built, sculpted, programmed, shot, edited, painted and launched by a cross-departmental collection of individuals at the Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA). It is intended to showcase video art content in high quality format from a variety of sources and perspectives.
ArtBabble was created so others will join in spreading the world of art through video.
ArtBable is supported by a grant from the Ball Brothers Foundation."
"The history of Chinese bookbinding has always suffered owing to a lack of material evidence. The various book formats discovered among the Dunhuang document collection provide a wealth of information previously out of reach to scholars. However, this resource has remained relatively untapped, attention instead being focused on the textual content of the documents. Bookbinding is just one of many aspects to the study of the Dunhuang collection as physical artefacts. This site, by combining textual descriptions with diagrams illustrating binding techniques and photographs of the actual objects, aims to give a comprehensive introduction to the different kinds of Chinese bookbinding contained in the Dunhuang collection of the British Library."
Forensic photography pages created by Steven Staggs (Police Department, University of California, Riverside)
"The United States Department of State is responsible for implementing the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act (the Act). This is the enabling legislation for the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. In accordance with the Act, United States Department of State accepts requests from countries for import restrictions on archaeological or ethnological artifacts, the pillage of which places their national cultural heritage in jeopardy. The Cultural Property Advisory Committee, appointed by the president of the United States, reviews these requests and makes recommendations to the United States Department of State. Under the president's authority, the State Department makes a decision with regard to the request and may enter into a cultural property agreement with the requesting country. The cultural property staff supports these functions and related activities and serves as a center of expertise on global cultural heritage protection issues."
"Art which applies electronic media - especially digital or unstable media - reflects upon and takes into account the meaning, idiosyncrasies and boundaries of such media. In this process, instability is a creative force that is essential to the continuous re-ordering of the social/cultural, political and economic relations in society. Instead of providing us with an orderly, homogeneous worldview, unstable media present an image of a world that is inconsistent, heterogeneous, complex and variable.
"V2_ is interested in the relationships and interactions between different media and in the relationship between art and scientific disciplines. The connections between art, technology, media and society are continuously explored, by bringing together artists, scientists and civil organizations and by initiating interdisciplinary collaborations. Over the past 20 years V2_ has succeeded in establishing an ongoing dialogue within a wide network of contacts that contributes to the development of specific (art) projects for research and presentation. V2_ offers a critical perspective on the futuristic promises that new media technologies always seem to carry."
"Forging the Future is an alliance dedicated to building tools to help rescue digital culture from oblivion. Building on the work of the Variable Media Network, Forging the Future refines and distributes free and open-source products that boost access and aid in preservation. Our aim is to help creators, conservators, and curators understand the possible futures that can be imagined for a cultural artifact, and choose the best among them on a case-by-case basis. Connecting all the Forging the Future tools is the Metaserver, which enables databases managed by different institutions to share standardized information about creators, works, and vocabulary."
"Works of creative expression don't lend themselves to a one-size-fits-all preservation solution. Yet the number and complexity of preservation options can confuse even the most informed conservator or archivist. The Variable Media Questionnaire can help by recording opinions on how to preserve creative works when their current medium becomes obsolete."
Timestamp: Tuesday, 17-Nov-2015 11:37:08 PST
Retrieved: Friday, 27-Nov-2015 10:01:55 GMT