in museum, library, and archives
See also News, New items, and Time-sensitive information for information on workshops, etc.
Funded by the Scholarly Communications Program of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, this teaching and learning platform aims to facilitate collaboration among the Library and Archives Conservation faculty and students. The site provides online interaction opportunities, shared access to teaching materials, and links to news about conservation research and practice.
"ENCoRE is a network organisation of higher educational institutions in the field of conservation - restoration.
"A main objective of ENCoRE is to promote research and education in the field of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage.
"ENCoRE was founded in 1997 with the main objective to promote research and education in the field of cultural heritage, based on the directions and recommendations given in the Professional Guidelines of the European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers Organisation E.C.C.O. and the Document of Pavia of October 1997. Currently ENCoRE has 41 full members and 1 associate members from among the leading conservation-restoration study programmes in Europe. In addition, 26 leading institutions and organisations working in the field of cultural heritage protection and research are partners of the network."
Among the documents available:
"The European Commission welcomes the formal adoption by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) on 23 April 2008. The way is clear now for Member States to adopt this voluntary scheme that will promote lifelong learning and mobility by making it easier to understand and compare individuals' qualifications around Europe."
"This paper outlines the main features of a possible future European Qualifications Framework (EQF). EU Heads of Government at their meeting in Brussels in March 2005 requested the creation of an EQF, thus supporting and strengthening previous recommendations (February and December 2004) made by the Ministers of Education and Training. The paper constitutes the basis on which a wide ranging consultation will take place in the period July-December 2005 of policy makers, social partners, stakeholders and experts in qualifications systems throughout Europe.
"An EQF would be developed and implemented on a voluntary basis, not entailing any legal obligations. It is envisaged as a meta-framework increasing transparency and supporting mutual trust. It would thereby enable qualifications frameworks and systems at national and sectoral level to be related to each other thus facilitating the transfer and recognition of the qualifications of individual citizens."
Provides information on education for restorers, further education, and paper production (in German)
"... a voluntary collection of courses taught by or for conservators or restorers of art and artifacts.
"Course syllabus listings, which are common on the Worldwide Web, have proved to be valuable tools in several ways. For teachers, they provide information and ideas about how others have structured similar offerings. The course syllabi give practitioners a sense of the changing knowledge base, making it easier to understand what students who come to them may know. (This may, then, provide clearer direction for their own private or public education endeavors.)"
The compiler is welcomes new contributions from conservation educators
An online exhibition about traditional drawing materials, derived from an exhibition at the Philadelphia Museum of Art to coincide with the 2000 AIC meeting.
"The GCI is pleased to make available didactic resources that have been produced and used in the Institute's courses, workshops and field training. These resources include outlines of teaching sessions, bibliographies, exercises, case studies, and technical notes that can be downloaded and used by conservation educators and students in the classroom and by professionals for informal, personal learning ...." Topics include Archaeological Site Protection and Management; Characterizing Materials; Conservation of Collections; Conservation of Photographic Materials; Conserving Modern Materials; Earthen Architecture Conservation"
Dianne van der Reyden, Senior Paper Conservator, SCMRE describes these materials thus:
"This outline serves as a way to continually organize the vast amount of online information about preservation in a format that can be used for teaching. We developed this format to facilitate our teaching programs both here at SI and abroad. We have used this curriculum, both in hard copy and online, to teach courses in South America and Asia. It will also be used when we host ICCROM's international course on conservation of paper-based collections. We plan also to develop a web text book on the topic.
"Although using this web curriculum online in some countries has been a slow process because of local computer problems, the professionals in our courses have grasped the point that the day will come when they will be able to use this material efficiently for teaching their own staffs or students."
"The conservation and preservation of cultural heritage is an interdisciplinary field requiring close cooperation between conservator-restorers, archaeologists, (art) historians, collection managers and museum curators on the one hand, and conservation scientists on the other. While the natural sciences, as well as engineering, play a critical role in the proper selection of conservation materials, methods and strategies, scientific research in conservation is often conducted by scientists who originally come from outside the cultural heritage field. These scientists thus lack the affinity with the cultural heritage and conservation fields necessary to fully understand and communicate the significance, but also the consequences of their work, to non-technical colleagues.
"In order to promote the synergy between the cultural heritage field, and the natural sciences and engineering, the European Community's Marie Curie programme is funding the project EPISCON - European Ph.D. in Science for Conservation. The goal of EPISCON is to develop the first generation of "true" conservation scientists in Europe. This goal will be attained by providing education, training, and research opportunities in the field of science for the conservation of cultural heritage to young scientists.
To that end, 16 three-year fellowships are being offered by ten EPISCON partners host institutions within the European Community. These fellowships include funding of an intensive six month training at the University of Bologna-Ravenna Campus (ITALY) in all aspects of the conservation of cultural heritage, followed by a two and a half year research project at one of the host institutions. The quality of the training will be recognised by the participating countries and an attempt will also be made to formally recognise the PhD by partner Universities."
Includes: Current Projects (Descriptions of current GCI education activities); Teaching and Learning Resources (Didactic materials produced for GCI courses) [see Resoureces for Educators above]; Past Projects (Descriptions of completed GCI education activities); and About GCI Education (How the GCI selects and conducts its educational initiatives for conservation professionals).
"Since its establishment in 1985, the Getty Conservation Institute has been involved in education and training. During the first decade of its history, the Institute ran a regular series of courses, workshops, and meetings for conservation professionals that addressed issues related to the conservation of museum collections, archaeological sites, and historic architecture. These activities were often undertaken in partnership with other international, regional, and national entities and reflected the particular learning priorities of the countries and regions where the Institute worked. For more information, see A Brief History of the GCI's Education and Training Program.
Starting in the late 1990s, the GCI increasingly placed its training efforts within its field projects. By doing so, the GCI was able to work with the same group of learners over an extended period of time and to combine classroom-based teaching and practical field experience. Examples can be found in the project Conservation of Mosaics in Situ, which included a component that focused on the training of technicians in the documentation and maintenance of archaeological mosaics in Tunisia, as well as in the Mogao Grottoes wall paintings project, which addressed the training of wall paintings conservators in China."
"The modules have been conceived for persons who are dedicated to cultural heritage preservation. You will be systematically encouraged to bring in and reflect your personal professional experience in a discerning way.
"TAPE - Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe was a project supported by the European Commission in Brussels in the framework of the Culture 2000 programme from 2005-2008, coordinated by the European Commission for Preservation and Access (ECPA). After discontinuation of the ECPA in 2008 the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) hosted the TAPE website until the end of 2010.
"In order to provide continued information on the activities of this audiovisual preservation project, specifically to maintain access to the electronic publications produced by TAPE, the website in its last version was taken over by the Phonogrammarchiv of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Partner and Leader of Work Package Research Archives within TAPE.
"The electronic TAPE publications have been listed in several published and private bibliographies. Therefore it was our foremost aim to transfer the domain "tape-online.net" from Amsterdam to Vienna, in order to keep the original links valid.
The Donald Horne Institute, Faculty of Arts and Design
Cultural Heritage Conservation is a global profession in high demand. It requires the knowledge and skills of a detective, an object doctor, a chemist and a historian. It deals with paper, books, paintings, machines, film, photographs and forgeries. It deals with cars and dresses, lutes and lyre-birds, aeroplanes and boomerangs, from the most revered collections in the world's great museums to small, personal and obscure family heirlooms.
The course has three strands - conservation, interpretation and management. These are based in several disciplines from science, the humanities, social sciences, ethics and law.
The unique structure of the course requires special training for extended periods in Australias national cultural institutions, under the guidance of master conservators.
Graduates will be qualified to work as a conservator in any museum in the world.
These are online, non-degree track programs
"The course content is directed towards people who are caring and responsible for heritage collections. We hope it is useful and relevant to those working in community museums, historical societies, and with public and private collections.
"Many of the exercises and recommended tasks throughout the program require you to have access to a collection or to an item that is significant to you or your community. What is the course about?
"There are four key topics covered in the course, intended to provide you with information about the main causes of damage to heritage collections, and practical measures you can employ to reduce the impact of these on your collections. The topics can be easily read independently of each other and do not necessarily need to be taken in any particular order. However, aspects of The Environment: Lighting, Temperature and Relative Humidity are relevant to issues discussed in Care: Handling, Storage and Display and Bugs: Pest Management.
- Profession: Conservation Theory, Ethics and Practice
- The Environment: Lighting, Temperature and Relative Humidity
- Care: Handling, Storage and Display
- Bugs: Pest Management
"Experts in art conservation and restoration in Thailand and Southeast Asian countries are seriously needed to preserve the nation's valuable cultural heritage. Lack of resources, manpower and training have meant that the upkeep of old temples paintings in Thailand has often been neglected, each year losing a little more lustre and integrity. And with them go part of the world history.Contents of program : Chemistry of materials, Natural Science of light, temperature and humidity, Technology in Color, Archaeology, Art History, Creative Art etc.
"Graduates will apply both technical and practical skills to sow the seeds of conservation movement for national, regional, and world heritage."
The centre is a partnership between the three Copenhagen based institutions: Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK), The National Museum of Denmark (NMD), School of Conservation (SoC)at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation
CATS was established to
- Advance interdisciplinary research into museum collections: Furthering scholarly understanding and public appreciation of the collections and their long-term safekeeping through preventive and instrumental conservation-restoration.
- Generate a deeper understanding of methods and materials of the past: Pairing long-established art historical research of the collections with technical research and state of the art methods and equipment.
- Provide analytical services to other institutions: Offering the expertise of CATS staff and performing scientific analysis to external research projects.
- Operate in collaborative projects: Working with conservation scientists, conservators and curators in Denmark and abroad.
Technical Art History: The cornerstone of CATS is technical art history; the interdisciplinary field of research between conservators, natural scientists and scholars from art historical and cultural studies. Technical art history investigates the making and meaning of art works, painting techniques and artists' materials.
A main objective of the research centre is to develop new and more exact methods to diagnose, treat and preserve our art historical heritage. The exploration of numerous artistic processes aims to shed light on the complex and fascinating cartography of ageing processes within works of art—to contribute to and advance the field of technical art history.
"The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation is the name of Denmark's new creative institution of higher education. The merger between the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture and the Danish Design School has been planned over a number of years, and as of early 2011, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation has joined the merger project."
"EVTEK Institute of Art and Design offers study programmes under three primary headings. The degree programmes in all areas consist of 160 Finnish credits (or 240 ECTS) and take four years to complete. The Polytechnic degree is equivalent to the Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in the UK, the French Licence, the German Diplom Fachhochschule and the Dutch HBO Diploma.
"Internships play an integral part in the education programmes and each degree programme has an obligatory internship period of twenty credits or twenty weeks and is included in the regular study plan. The internship period is usually divided into two periods of ten weeks each.
"[The Conservation program' is sub-divided in the following five areas:
- conservation of easel paintings
- conservation of paper
- conservation of textiles
- conservation of furniture
- conservation of cultural historic objects
- conservation of cultural historic interiors
See also Contact information
Besøksadresse Frederiksgt. 3
Åpent: Ekspedisjonen for studenter er i Blindernveien 11, kl 12.30-15 (14.30)
Tlf: +47 22 84 19 00/22 85 96 34
Faks: +47 22 84 19 01/22 85 95 24
Fagsekretr, konsulent Mimi Elisabeth Koppang
Tlf: +47 22 84 19 02
"Our department is organized as part of the Institute for Archaeology, Numismatics, and History of Art. The institute includes at present the University Museum of National Antiquities, which for external reasons will be separated during 1999 and result in the Institute for Archaeology, Conservation, and History of Art. The Department for Conservation Studies is located near the Royal Gardens, on the top floor of the university's old chemistry building from the 1870s. The building also houses the teaching department for Archaeology, the museum's medieval section and library, and the museum's painting conservation studio and analytical laboratory. The museum's section for objects conservation and its laboratory are located across the courtyard. As suggested by these neighbourhoods the teaching and training is meant to take advantage of the university's existing resources in the field.
"As is well known, university studies are differently structured from one country to the other. For example, the undergraduate "B.A."(cand.mag.)-degree at Oslo Faculty of the Humanities is of four years' duration (eight semesters). The composition of the humanistic "B.A."-degree reflects a generalist way of thought, encouraging widely different subjects to be put together in units varying from one to four semesters. Unlike the system in many other countries, our graduate "M.A."(cand.philol.)-degree requires at least three semesters of the "M.A." subject to be studied in the preceding "B.A." For example, one cannot take an "M.A." in art history without 1 1/2 year of basic art history in the "B.A.". The "M.A." is normally of 2 years, and may be followed by the new Ph.D.-programme (Dr.art.) of 3-4 years.3
"Thus, as a consequence of the way university studies are structured in Norway, conservation studies will comprise a lower and a higher degree. The 4-year undergraduate degree must, furthermore, adhere to the generalist tradition of the Faculty, which means that the 2 years of "pure conservation" represents the maximum proportion of one single subject to be put into a "B.A." This makes the 2 years in advance largely self-evident. Prerequisites: one semester of philosophy (compulsory introduction for all university students); two semesters of a relevant humanistic subject - art history (for painting conservators) and archaeology or ethnology (for object conservators); a high level exam in chemistry from high-school (may be taken separately); a portfolio of practical works; and a test for normal colour vision. One semester may be filled with an optional subject (e.g., arts and crafts, chemistry or physics, or a third supplementary semester of the relevant humanistic subject). Selection: Practical admission tests and a 45 minutes' interview. There were 71 applicants in 1998 for the 10 posts in the present programme.
"'M.A. and Ph.D. programmes in conservation remain to be made. Due to recent budget cuts in the university sector unforeseen delays may occur in their establishment.
Frederiks gt. 3, N-0164 Oslo
Telephone +47.22 85 98 29 (secretariat)
Fax +47.22 85 95 24
See also The American Academy in Rome
"This book was published on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the annual conference of the Association of North American Graduate Programs in the Conservation of Cultural Property held in Buffalo, New York April 22-24, 1999."
From the Preface
"The 1999 conference of the North American graduate programs in the conservation of art and other cultural property was the twenty-fifth of these annual events. The first conference of this kind was held in 1974 at the Corning Museum of Glass, a few years after a disastrous flood damaged the museum's artifact and library collections. The five-day conference, a "Conservation Seminar on Glass and Library Materials," was organized by Dr. Robert H. Brill, the museum's research scientist. It brought together for the first time the students and faculty of the graduate training programs and conservators, curators, and other museum specialists for several days of lectures and discussions. The current programs, comprising the membership of the Association of North American Graduate Programs in the Conservation of Cultural Property (ANAGPIC), have prepared this publication to commemorate that significant occasion.
"The annual student conferences of ANAGPIC have become a much-cherished tradition of the programs and are eagerly anticipated events. They foster camaraderie among the participating students that becomes the foundation of their future collegial relationships as practicing professionals. Students present lectures of the highest caliber that provide insight into the quality of the education and training offered by the program that each represents. The conferences also feature a day of talks by senior conservators and allied professionals. The talks address a selected theme of current interest in conservation, thereby providing students with a view of an important aspect of their future careers.
"The following pages are intended to provide a perspective on the role that the programs, of themselves and through their graduates, have played in the remarkable development of the conservation profession over the past quarter century. In her foreword, Marigene Butler, former director of the Intermuseum Conservation Association, Oberlin College, and emeritus head conservator of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, identifies contributions of the programs that have furthered the continuing evolution of conservation into a mature field. Mrs. Butler's views are based on her exceptional forty-year career in conservation, which has included supervision of the internships of many former students and graduates of ANAGPIC-member programs, as well as the internships of conservators from abroad.
"The principal part of this volume is devoted to a directory of the graduates of each ANAGPIC program through the end of 1998. Insofar as they were available, a few key facts are given for each individual listed, including current employment. The latter shows that the majority of graduates are working full-time in conservation, preserving the nation's cultural patrimony."
"Now in its second decade, MIAP has established a high standard for synthesizing theory and practice. Students engage in projects that use real collections and require collaboration with working archivists. Through internships, class assignments, and participation in professional organizations, our students develop a deep understanding of the field." -Dan Streible, Director, Moving Image Archiving and Preservation (MIAP) Program
The Master of Arts degree program in Moving Image Archiving and Preservation (MIAP) is a two-year, interdisciplinary course of study that trains future professionals to manage preservation-level collections of film, video, new media, and digital works. MIAP is situated within New York University's Department of Cinema Studies, part of the Kanbar Institute of Film & Television in the Tisch School of the Arts.
MIAP provides prospective collection managers and archivists with an international, comprehensive education in the theories, methods, and practices of moving image archiving and preservation. Our curriculum includes courses on moving image conservation and preservation; collection management; metadata standards and application; copyright and legal issues; moving image curation; the cultures of museums, archives, and libraries; and the histories of cinema and television. Students are taught by leading scholars and practitioners in the field.
MIAP takes full advantage of its New York City setting, giving students the opportunity to work with local archives, museums, libraries, labs, and arts organizations. Internships give students experience with multiple institutions, each having a unique organizational culture and approach to archiving and preservation. Graduates of the program have careers as preservation specialists, archivists, research scholars, and conservators in diverse organizations, including library preservation departments, regional and national archives, digital libraries, media arts organizations, museums, production entities, video distributors, and television stations.
The application deadline is December 1 for admission in the following fall semester. If you are interested in applying, please explore our website and visit the Prospective Students page for application guidelines, an FAQ, and news of upcoming information sessions. If you have questions about the program, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This major introduces students to the field of art conservation, which addresses artistic, ethical, and technical questions from an interdisciplinary perspective and combines the liberal arts and sciences to solve problems of preservation. The major also prepares students for rigorous graduate programs in art conservation. A variety of science, art history, art, and other courses prepare students to engage in internships at the Williamson Gallery, enroll in conservation courses in off-campus study programs, and build a portfolio of practical experience necessary for graduate school admissiong"
"The aim of the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program will be to provide students with a solid educational base and practical training in both archaeological and ethnographic materials; as well as an appreciation of the often complex issues relating to significance, access and use of these materials which can be very different from the criteria for conservation of fine art or historical materials. In the case of ethnographic materials especially, the program will facilitate an understanding of the multiple values that artifacts hold for indigenous populations, and will foster a sense of partnership with indigenous communities in relevant aspects of the conservation process."
The partnership between UCLA and the Getty in creating this program ensures that both a major research university and an institution with a major mandate for conservation of the artistic heritage of the world are working to create a rich and vibrant conservation training opportunity. The program will help the student develop working relationships with a wide array of colleagues in the Getty Conservation Institute, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and UCLA departments of Archaeology, Anthropology, Art History, Chemistry, and Geology to name only a few."University of California Los Angeles
Dr. David A. Scott
Los Angeles CA 90095-1510
"UCLA's Department of Film and Television and Department of Information Studies offer the Moving Image Archive Studies program. This Master of Arts degree program, is an intensive two-year course of study, consisting of specialized seminars, directed studies, an extensive internships program, screenings, guest lectures and technical demonstrations. For more information check the website above or contact Lance Watsky, MIAS Program Coordinator, miasinfo [at] ucla.edu"
The Campbell Center offers a program of Mid-career training for those in the fields of historic preservation, collections care, and conservation.
"This program is designed for working librarians and archivists who have preservation responsibilities but limited formal preservation education. The program includes a full week of classes in New Jersey in fall, another week in spring, and a final week in fall. The weeklong sessions include classroom instruction, some hands-on experiences, and field trips. In-between the three weeks of classes, participants conduct guided preservation planning activities for their home institutions, including conducting a preservation survey and drafting a disaster plan"
"The National Preservation Institute (NPI) offers continuing education and professional training for those involved in the management, preservation, and stewardship of cultural heritage. NPI serves a broad spectrum of individuals and groups from the government and private sectors by providing seminars in historic preservation and cultural resource management. NPI was founded in 1980 as a nonprofit, 501(c)(3) organization."
"Preservation Field Services offers a wide variety of workshops on topics. Designed as continuing education for library and archives staff who are responsible for preservation activities, the workshops are held at locations throughout the southeast. Instruction emphasizes the cost-effectiveness of preventive preservation measures and includes lecture components as well as participatory and hands-on exercises."
"Once a year, most years, in the panhandle of Idaho, I teach a workshop about the Technology of the Medieval Book. In two weeks a person is introduced to the growing, harvesting and processing of flax, the manufacture of thread and paper; splitting oak and processing it to make wooden boards for books; manufacture of parchment and alum-tawed skin, and fore edge clasps. Each participant is expected to leave with two books. One in the limp vellum style, and the other full wooden boards with clasps."
This degree is aimed at the conservation, restoration and research of cultural heritage made, the curriculum covers three areas: architectural, urban and archaeological, which analyzes the characteristics of the buildings and monumental sites, including: historical background, construction systems and structural proportions, urban and architectural environment, natural environment, morphology, damage, alternatives for the planning, preservation and restoration. Work practices are complemented by field where they apply the knowledge learned in the classroom.
"Objective of the Master: Training teachers specialized in activities aimed at conservation and restoration of cultural property in the urban-regional aspects, architectural and archaeological sites. With an updated and innovative perspective that allows them to access, according to their interests, research, professional practice and dissemination of specialized knowledge.
- "Train specialists in the field of restoration and conservation of photographs to form an academic community engaged in public and private.
- "Contribute to the development of conservation and restoration of photographs and the preservation of photographic collections.
- "Provide the professional profile that allows the graduate to delve into this area and start a solid career, creative and internationally competitive.
- "Establish ongoing relationships with educational programs in other countries and institutions involved in conservation.
- "Promote interdisciplinary work among restaurateurs, photographers, scientists and historians of photography.
- "Develop a conservation program of photographs that serve as models for other schools."
For information on restructuring of education (European Higher Education Area) see the Bologna Process
"This website was the official website of the Bologna Process for the period 1 July 2007 until 30 June 2010. No changes will be made from July 2010 onwards."
"For up-to-date information on the Bologna Process and the European Higher Education Area, please visit www.ehea.info
See also ENCoRE Education Guide
After the 3-year Bachelor program, a student may continue on through a 1- or 2- year Masters program. A Ph.D. in conservation-restoration is now possible, in collaboration with University of Liége.
The Centre organises a postgraduate course in conservation, which during its existence of more than 20 years have trained architects, engineers, art historian, archaeologist and many other disciplines in the conservation and restoration of historic towns and buildings from all over the world.
Research activities of the Centre have increased since the last ten years and they are dealing with architectural conservation, archaeological sites, pathology, conservation and restoration of masonry walls, structure consolidation, materials, surveying and documenting historic buildings and various other fields.
"Every year, IRPA/KIK offers young people an opportunity to perfect their skills by means of practical training placements in its workshops and laboratories.
"As IRPA/KIK is not a teaching institution, it is unable to award diplomas. Candidates are selected based on their CVs and according to the placement openings in the various workshops and laboratories."
"Stichting Restauratie Atelier Limburg: SRAL was founded in 1986 to preserve the cultural heritage within the Province of Limburg (The Netherlands). Through the SRAL, the Provincial Government of Limburg supports the conservation of art objects held in state or public collections and churches within the province. Over the last 25 years SRAL has grown to become a National and International Institute with departments for the Conservation of Paintings (Panel and Canvas), Polychrome Sculpture, Paper, Contemporary Art and Historic Interiors.
"The Institute also provides internship placements for recent graduates and houses the Post-Graduate training of young conservators from the University of Amsterdam in each department."
MSc/MSc in conservation-restoration
"The department offers three specialized fields: conservation-restoration of paintings and polychromed wood; stone conservation conservation-restoration; and conservation-restoration of wall paintings and mosaics. After a two-semester introduction to all specialties, followed by 8 semesters of concentrated theoretical and practical traninng in a selected specialization. For the fifth year of the student, under the mentorship guidance, produce her thesis on a chosen topic."
"The course of studies has a duration of eight semesters, with an additional semester for completion of Diploma work, following the successful completion of which students achieve the title of Graduate Restorer-Painter, or Graduate Restorer-Sculptor (Bachelor's Degree, Dipl. Rest.). The graduate programme of studies is followed by a post-graduate course, for which we are currently working on a special programme and curriculum. Under our regulations the post-graduate programme can be organized as a one-year specialist programme (Specialist), a two-year scientific programme of studies (complete with a Master of Science or Art Degree), or as a three-year programme of studies leading to a Doctor's Degree in Science (Ph.D)."
"The goal of the academic program is to prepare students for entry into the professional field of historical preservation and restoration within their chosen specialty. This is done by providing students with a thorough knowledge of the artistic and applied arts, the history of art, selected fields within the natural sciences, and of their mutual interconnection. Theoretical knowledge in the natural sciences and history of art is integrated with practical knowledge about the materials, methods and technologies of restoration within the area of specialization. Most importantly, students learn to apply this knowledge with proper regard to the interdisciplinary context. Besides the technical, scientific and artistic aspects of the curriculum, emphasis is also placed on the ethics and aesthetics of restoration, international and national historical monument care principles, relevant legislation, the economics of the field, and foreign language study. The scholastic program of the school strives to reflect the broadness and range of a college education. A special element of the curriculum is focused on development of professional discipline. Graduates of the Institute are able independently, or in cooperation with experts from other fields, to prepare an overall program for restoration and conservation, including research, diagnosis, artistic and historical assessment, restoration design and the actual restoration and conservation measures, accompanied by documentation."
The Egyptian-Italian Center for the Conservation of Antique Photographs and Paper Heritage (EICAP) and the associated conservation laboratory have been established in Cairo, with financial support by the Cooperation Development Program of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The main objectives of this initiative are to establish correct guidelines for the conservation of antique photographs and paper heritage and, more in general, bringing to light the vast treasures of private photographic collections that are currently unknown to experts in the field and to the general public. EICAP, hosted by the Faculty of Fine Arts of Helwan University in Zamalek, Cairo, is a unique initiative for the entire Middle East and the Arab Region, especially for what concerns aspects relevant to photographic conservation and restoration. EICAP is also meant to work as a research and educational institute that will offer educational programs and certifications. The main educational program is the International Master in Conservation of Antique Photographs and Paper Heritage, organized jointly by Helwan University (Egypt) and by the University of Catania (Italy).
The Master in Conservation of Antique Photographs and Paper Heritage will be held in Helwan University, Cairo. The duration of the Master Program is four semesters (two years). The academic curriculum follows the European Credit Transfer System. The Master Program is worth 120 credits (ECTS) organized in 15 courses and a Master Thesis project. More details about the proposed academic curriculum can be found by
The Master Program emphasizes fundamental aspects of conservation science, including sciences (physics, chemistry, biology) applied to the conservation of old photographs and antique paper documents and manuscripts, as well as practical conservation skills, to which nearly three-quarters of the academic credits are dedicated. Instructors will be professors of Helwan and Catania universities as well as professional conservation experts (for a list of the Master course instructors),
Students successfully completing the four-semester study program, including the discussion of a master thesis, will be awarded a joint Catania-Helwan Master Degree in Conservation of Antique Photographs and Paper Heritage, equivalent to a M.Sc. university degree in Egypt and a professional master degree according to the Italian and European (Bologna process) system. The maximum number of students that will be admitted to the first cycle of the International Master Course is 30 students. The minimum number is 20 students. The Master Course will not be activated if less than 20 students apply (for registration fees, deadlines and admission criteria),
The courses will be held at the premises of EICAP, within the Faculty of Fine Arts of Helwan University in Zamalek, Cairo, with the possibility for students of spending up to one semester in Italy or abroad to complete the thesis project.Faculty of Fine Arts - Helwan University
4 Mohamed Thakeb St., Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
+20 02 27 35 80 98 - +20 02] 27 35 75 70
Fax: +20 02 27 35 89 10
French training is a 5 year process leading to the Master Conservation-Restauration des Biens Culturels (MCRBC).
Note: The MCRBC replaces the Maîtrise des Sciences et Techniques (MST) a course of study instituted at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne in 1973.
To begin, a prospective student will need a "Licence 1 Histoire de lart et Archeologie", which is not a diploma. This entails a first year of Art history (or, in some cases science). This is followed by a 4 year program, the first 2 years leading to "Licence dHistoire de lArt et Archeologie spécialité: Préservation des Biens Culturels", and after the remaining 2 years, the MCRBC.
For a detailed explanation of the structure) of conservator training in France, and its historical context, see Icosačdre, lassociation des étudiants du Master Conservation-Restauration des Biens Culturels (MCRBC): Presentation de la Formation. See also Les formations françaises en conservation restauration and LEcole Supérieure dArt dAvignon (ESAA)
Inp supplants the Institut de Formation des Restaurateurs d´Oeuvres d´Art (IFROA)
"The Institut national du patrimoine (Inp) is a school for further studies governed by the Ministry of Culture and Communication. Its mission is to recruit—through competitive examinations—and train curators of heritage for the State, the Regional Authorities and the City of Paris, as well as conservators of heritage. Inp is the only school in Europe dispensing training for both of these closely related professions.
"Each year Inp selects 40 to 50 student-curators and about 20 student-conservators.
"Inp also offers a wide range of continuing education programmes. It fosters cultural communication through conferences and colloquia, bringing together participants from various heritage agencies and universities, French and international. Inp has also developed a network of international co-operation contacts for its missions and activities, by placing its students abroad, by hosting international students, and by exporting training schemes and expertise."
"The Department of conservators is commissioned to train student-conservators admitted by competitive entrance examination, or by a parallel procedure, to one of the seven specialities available. It guarantees the schooling (studies, placements, research projects) of regular students and exchange students (e.g. ERASMUS students).
"The department also develops and organises continuing-education programmes for practising conservators : placements, conferences, training sessions for the license to work for "Musées de France", training sessions for the personnel of natural history museums, specific requests."
State Archives' Administration of Baden-Württemberg (Germany) Institute of Preservation of Archival and Library Material. Schillerplatz 11, 71638 Ludwigsburg, Germany.
Diploma Restauratorin (FH)
Diploma restorer (FH)
Courses of studies
- Preservation and restoration of objects from wood
- Preservation and restoration of wandmalereien and historical architecture coloredness
- Preservation of stone
- Metal preservation
Even if the course of studies has a double name, a double study does not have to be completed here by any means. The title restoration/excavation technology refers rather to technical specializations, which are possible after the common basic study. The restoration is both of technical cultural property and of photos, films and data media as well as excavation technology. ... The strict selection—in each case to the winter semester 40 students and student (maximum 10 for each emphasis) are registered—has among other things a practical reason: Every student is provided with excellently equipped laboratories, with microscope and suitable tools. Practically, one works immediately on historical original objects. Precise observation as well as methods and techniques are learned and first experiences for the later responsible activity are collected. (Translated from the German; any mistakes are mine—wh)
Project-oriented learning: The crossdisciplinary unit of scientific, art-historical, artistic, manual and specifically restauratorischer training reflects the requirements of the professional experience. A goal is the preservation of cultural values on the basis of the material-specific and technological peculiarities of the objects.
Course of studies preservation and restoration Hildesheim (diploma) with the courses of studies: Preservation and restoration of:
- Book and paper
- Calm wood objects and paintings
- Wood objects with improved surface
- Stone objects
- Wall painting/architecture surface
"Average period of study: 10 terms
Conclusion: Diploma restorer
" [T]he aim of the teaching programme is to enable students to produce conservation and restoration concepts of a high scientific quality, as well as to develop practical skills in the conservation and restoration technologies applied to damaged works of art, together with written and pictoral documentation of all examinations and restoration work performed.
"This includes independent scientific research and the publication of the results. The study programme aims to develop team-working skills for the co-operative partnership required in professional practice, for instance work with natural scientists, art historians and architects.
"Students also learn how to manage and organise restoration workshops and projects. After completing their studies, graduates either work freelance or are employed as conservers by museums and institutions which preserve historic monuments.
"During the four-semester Grundstudium, both theoretical and practical foundation courses are taught in the conservation and restoration of paintings on canvas and wooden panels, polychrome sculptures, mural decoration and wall painting.
"Practical classes in the conservation and restoration of paintings and polychrome sculptures and in historical art and craft techniques are held in the Department's studios. Practical experience of the conservation and restoration of mural decoration and wall painting is provided at architectural monuments outside the Academy.
"Other subjects include the basic principles of drawing and painting, focusing on studies from nature, and historical painting techniques. Regular lectures and practical classes in academic subjects, Art History, Principles of Architecture and Anatomy for Artists, form an important part of the curriculum."
For background on the program see Der Bachelor-/Masterstudiengang "Restaurierung": Bayerische Staatsbibliothek kooperiert mit TU München, Dr. Irmhild Schäfer, Bibliotheksmagazin: Mitteilungen aus den Staatsbibliotheken Berlin und München
See also Conservation - Restoration Art Technology Conservation
Master Note: This program is "expiring - only application for the 3rd & higher semester will be considered"
"The Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art was founded in 1985 in the Faculty of Graphic Arts and Design of TEI of Athens. It is the only [Greek] educational institution in tertiary education for the Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art.
"The total number of accepted students every year is up to 90 approximately. The period of studies is 8 taught semesters (4 years). The percentage of students that give up their studies is 20%. The percentage of students that graduate is 80%.
"The mean value of study duration for Section A (Conservation of Archaeological Materials) is approximately 5 years. The mean value of study duration for Section B (Conservation of Works of Art) is approximately 6 years.
"It should be noted that one of the reasons for the delay of graduation of Students from Section B is that due to their big number they delay in their practical courses.
"In the department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art can register:
- Secondary Education graduates through the system of National Exams.
- Tertiary Education graduates through the system of Acceptance Exams that take place once a year. The syllabus of the exams is defined by the Council of the Department and includes exams in the following subjects:
- Freehand drawing
- History of Art
- General Principles of Chemistry"
"Studies on the interdisciplinary field of Cultural Heritage and Science/Technology offer the great potential of a modern and balanced educational syllabus; they also produce an ideal platform for holistic approaches that are guaranteed by the creative mixing of up-to-date methodologies with archaeological science, archaeometry and cultural heritage technologies."
"CultTech operates within the Peloponnese, an advanced natural and cultural environment that hosts plethora of historical, archaeological sites and monuments. A key issue for CultTech is its orientation towards hands-on research thus offering post-graduate research training and the potential of the implementation of a diploma dissertation closely related or within ongoing research projects."
"The official language of the programme is English. The duration is 3 semesters (two semesters of taught courses and one for the implementation of the dissertation thesis)."
"Students from the fields of archaeology, cultural heritage management, conservation, materials science and engineering are welcomed to apply."
"The programme will take place in Kalamata, Greece."
The Fine Art Branch of the Conservation Program at the Hungarian University of Fine Arts trains painting, wooden sculpture and stone sculpture conservators, while students in the Branch of Applied Arts Object Conservation can specialize in five fields (wooden objects and furniture conservation, metal and goldsmith objects conservation, paper and leather conservation, textile and leather conservation and siliceous objects conservation).
The program prepares students for independent conservation, research and activities, and for producing professional documentation. Primary objectives include providing students with specialized artistic and professional training, and fostering an understanding of the multi-faceted tasks in the various fields. In addition, students also gain proficiency in the applied artistic and technological procedures. In the microscope laboratory of the department, students can conduct and evaluate scientific tests, and process information through computer imaging. This facility also supports high level theoretical and practical training and research.
In the framework of graduate training, students acquire skills related to the protection of art objects and monuments, painting techniques, the study of materials, physics, chemistry, iconography, museology and the history of apparel. The part-time program offers Applied Arts Object Conservation training in cooperation with the Hungarian National Museum. The objective of the program is to train experts who are able—either independently or with the collaboration of museologists and scientific experts—to carry out and evaluate the production techniques of (and material tests on) art objects, to assess their condition, and to plan and carry out the rescue, cleaning, conservation and restoration of these objects. They also acquire the necessary competence in terms of establishing and monitoring museum environments, which serve the conservation of art objects.
Graduating students of the Branch of Applied Arts Object Conservation have organized an exhibition series entitled Preserved Art Treasures since 1996. While, before 1999, these shows took place at the Museum of Applied Arts, as of 2000, they have been organized at the Hungarian National Museum.
Since 2002, these degree shows have also featured the works of students from the Branch of Fine Arts Conservation Branch. A bilingual catalogue is published in conjunction with each show.
- Higher Certificate in Engineering in Furniture Design and Manufacturing (GA915)
- Higher Certificate in Engineering in Furniture Production (GA943)
- Bachelor of Science in Furniture Conservation and Restoration (GA948)
- Bachelor of Science (Hons) in Furniture Technology (GA_TFURN_BLF)
"The formal training in furniture conservation and restoration at the Furniture College in Letterfrack is unique in Ireland. The three-year programme started in 2001, with the first group of students graduating this year."
For information on the course you can contact:
Henning Schulze or Angelika Rauch
Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology
+353 95 41660
Fax: +353 95 41112
+353 95 41660
Fax: +353 95 41112
"The American Academy in Rome is one of the leading American overseas centers for independent study and advanced research in the fine arts and the humanities. ... In 1894, with the support of Andrew Carnegie, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., William K. Vanderbilt and Henry Clay Frick, the new American School of Architecture was founded in Rome. A year later the American School of Classical Studies in Rome was formed by the Archaeological Institute of America, and in 1913, a union between the two Schools became what is now the American Academy in Rome.
Through its annual Rome Prize fellowship program, Through its annual the Academy supports up to thirty individuals working in archaeology, architecture, classical studies, design arts, historic preservation and conservation, history of art, landscape architecture, literature, modern Italian studies, musical composition, post-classical humanistic studies and visual arts. Rome Prize Fellows are chosen by juries of experts who review past work and the proposed project of each applicant.
While the Academy is composed of two historic "Schools," the School of Fine Arts and School of Classical Studies, it does not have a faculty, a curriculum or a student body. The artists and scholars in residence at the Academy are there to pursue their own independent projects."
"... [I]n 1996, Alinari established a photographic restoration workshop offering training courses for specialised restorers. In collaboration with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, a specific agreement for setting up a two-year course for restorers of photographs has been drawn up. The courses will prepare restorers of images on paper, glass plates, daguerreotypes, calotypes and film. They will be held by eminent experts coming from all over the world, who will offer a theoretical, practical, historical approach, using state-of-the-art equipment and availing themselves of the advice of research chemists, teachers and experienced archivists. The latter will give specific instructions for best preserving such a wealth of precious photographic material. Together with traditional restoration a section about digital restoration of images is already in operation."
"It is a small school that takes only 30 students each year. The class is divided evenly into two groups, one which specializes in the restoration of frescoes and the other which specializes in paintings on canvas, panel and wooden sculptures. It is a three year, 3000 hour course during which two years are spent doing hands-on work in the school laboratory and five months are spent doing two internships at outside laboratories. The class attends some of the courses all together, other courses are taken separately according to the specialization (i.e. fresco students take mineralogy, painting students take xylology). It is fully accredited and supervised by the Italian Superintendent of Cultural Heritage which sends representatives from the Provinces of Brescia, Mantua and Cremona to oversee work in progress on pieces from their respective territories.
"The degree earned at the end of the program is a certificate of Restoration Technician and qualifies the graduate to work either under the supervision of a fully licensed conservator or to work independently on privately owned antique works of art. All art belonging to churches and museums is government property and, legally speaking, is under the protection and supervision of the Superintendent. In order to earn a full conservator's license in Italy one must pass a very difficult and very expensive exam given in Rome.
"Though the certificate at gli Istituti Santa Paola does not give full restoration license in and of itself, it is nonetheless an extremely rigorous program equal to any of the Conservation Master's programs offered in the US. The school is made by Italians, for Italians, therefore, the entire program is in Italian."
"La Cantoria is a professional school for becoming a restorer. Teaching is mainly based on practical applications of restoration techniques. Students gain the necessary experience working directly on authentic ancient material provided by museums and private collectors.
Theoretical subjects as History of Art, Chemistry and Manufacturing Techniques are also teached being essential elements for a correct approach to any restoration work.
Professional restorers compose the teaching staff, with a vast experience in their different fields of restoration. According to the philosophy of La Cantoria, each student has to work closely together with the teacher. Therefore the school accepts only a limited number of students.
The school organises courses in restoration of ceramics, painting, wood, and metal at different levels: Basic and Advanced Academic Courses, and Specialisation Courses focus on students who intend to become professional restorers."
"The I.C.R. offers a quadrennial diploma course in art restoration which covers the following areas:
- Area A: Mural paintings, paintings on panels, canvas, fabrics. leather and paper, polychrome wooden sculptures, architectonic surfaces and materials;
- Area B: Metals, ceramic, glass, enamels, jewellery, ivory, bone, amber and objects from excavations;
- Area C: Mosaics, natural and artificial stone materials and stuccoes.
A restorer of cultural heritage diploma is awarded at the end of the course.
The admission to the course is subject to the successful participation in a competitive examination held by the Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali, details of which are published in the Official Gazette each year. The number of students admitted for each area will be stated in the announcement of competition. The total number of students admitted will not be less than eighteen.
The course is both theoretical and practical.
"The Institute for Conservation and Restoration was founded in 1939 under the name Istituto Centrale del Restauro designed by Giulio Carlo Argan and Cesare Brandi, reflecting the need to set the restoration work on a scientific basis and to unify intervention methods on the works of art and archaeological finds. The teaching of restoration had been fixed since the founding of the Institute as one of the main goals to be pursued. Create a new professional restorer "scientific", released by the traditional workshop or training at institutions of art education, was one of the main objectives Argan and Brandi had put into the project of setting up the Central Institute of Restoration. The training has been pursued within the Institute with the utmost commitment and the realization that in order to preserve the cultural heritage and to preserve it from the risks it is necessary to have trained qualified professionals with passion and rigor. The training consisted of three years of study with lessons of theory and practice conducted in the scientific laboratories and restoration. Since the 40s there has been not only to an exponential growth in requests for participation to reach the peaks of 800 questions in the '90s, but in parallel has risen dramatically the level of education among the students until you have a high percentage undergraduates or postgraduates in other academic disciplines related to the restoration."
"Our School/Workshop Oro e Colore in Florence is involved in the field of restoration - of both paintings and wooden objects decorated using gold and silver leaf, coloured lacquers etc. One of our defining features is our ability to offer personalized courses of brief, medium or long duration, which makes them suitable for both beginners and professionals wanting to specialise.
"This is possible due to our employment of teachers with a wealth of professional experience as restorers working for some of the most prestigious public institutions in Italy, in addition to having over 10 years teaching experience.
"Our past experience with foreign students proves our courses can offer a way for students to experience a relationship with works of art not available to the ordinary tourist.
"We can offer the chance to restore genuine artworks, supplied to us in many cases by the Uffizi Museum, under the supervision, naturally, of professional restorers
Oro e Colore - School/Workshop
Restoration of Gilded Objects and Paintings
Via Toscanella 18/r
+39 55 28 94 15 (phone/fax)
San Gemini Preservation Studies is a summer field school that organizes lectures, research, fieldwork, workshops and fieldtrips in the disciplines of historic preservation, restoration and conservation. It is located in Central Italy in the city of San Gemini. These programs focus on the study of architectural survey and restoration, traditional methods of painting, conservation of archaeological ceramics, and the restoration of books and works of art on paper. The field projects involve the survey and restoration of medieval buildings, the archaeological excavation in the ancient Roman city of Carsulae, as well as work on local archival material.
The curriculum covers technical restoration of cultural heritage including: Stone, decorative surfaces on architecture, paintings on wooden support and textiles, wooden artifacts, archival and library materials, parchment, paper, and photographic materials, musical instruments, such as pipe organs and violins. etc.
See also Archaeological Conservation Onsite Courses
Studio Art Centers International
Palazzo dei Cartelloni
Via SantAntonino, 11
50123 Florence, Italy
+39 11 39 055 28994
Fax: +39 11 39 055 2776408
SACI New York
50 Broad Street
New York, NY 10004-2372
Fax: (212) 248-7222
Among the research subjects available for doctoral candidates: Materials and technologies for cultural heritage. For 2012 one of the research topics was "Development of new nanostructured polymeric materials for cultural heritage conservation and restoration"
"The international school of doctoral studies in Materials Science & Engineering provides a comprehensive graduate education in the fundamentals of materials science and engineering /synthesis-structure-property-performance relationships.
"The "dottorato di ricerca" (doctorate of research) is the highest Italian academic degree, which is equivalent to the Ph.D.
"The programme of the Doctoral in Materials Science & Engineering , in English for both teaching and research activities, mainly consists in high quality research projects where students carry out their activity.
"Each year about 15 students, usually awarded with a grant are accepted into the School and they are taught by a dedicated materials science and engineering faculty. Students have daily contact and dialogue with faculty members who teach them in small classes and research groups. The faculty are nationally and internationally known for thier research, publications, activities in government committees and commissions, and in professional organisations where they hold high office."
The M.Sc. programme in Conservation of Decorative Architectural Surfaces prepares students for the profession of conservator, with a focus on in situ conservation. The preparatory year of this programme is being offered during academic year 2015-16, leading to the MSc programme itself in the following academic year.
The MA programme in Cultural Heritage Management is aimed at people already working as cultural heritage managers, or those wishing to enter this field, and is designed to allow them to develop the theoretical and practical skills required to mediate issues surrounding cultural heritage in a more informed manner.
For more information see
Thee University of Amsterdam offers a full program of a two-year MA course including an additional two-year Post Graduate programme in the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage. The following specialisations are offered: Book and Paper; Contemporary Art; Glass, Ceramics, Stone; Historic Interiors; Metals; Paintings; Photographic Materials; Textiles; Wood and Furniture. Entry requirements consist of at least a BA in a relevant discipline, plus additional skills and expertise.
The training program is designed around an object-based approach. Students learn to work in an interdisciplinary research environment, combining research methods from natural sciences, the humanities and learn practical skills. Under the guidance of our staff conservators from the different specialisations, students acquire a firm base of conservation ethics and learn to design and perform conservation treatments on actual museum objects from various national collections. Our studio building is located at the Museumplein in Amsterdam and also houses the research labs of the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency and the Rijksmuseum conservation studios. The training program is embedded in a professional network through close collaboration with guest teachers and specialists from various museums and conservation associated institutes from the Netherlands and abroad.
For more information please see University of Amsterdam - Conservation and Restoration
Conservation and Restoration Secretary
Johannes Vermeerplein 1
1071 DV Amsterdam
+31 20 525 503
"The Faculty teaches conservators who graduate with a degree of Master of Arts in Art Conservation; it also confers Doctor's and Ph.D. degrees. The graduate I course is 6 years, including the thesis year.
"The Cracow Faculty of Art Conservation and Restoration is composed of the following four Departments and three Institutes:
- Department of Conservation of Mural Painting
- Department of Conservation of Easel Painting
- Department of Sculpture Conservation
- Department of Art Conservation Technology and Techniques
- Department of General Art
- Institute of Applied Physics
- Institute of Applied Chemistry
- Institute of History of Polish art and Theory of Conservation
The department offers PhD in Conservation and Restoration
"The Department of Conservation and Restoration, Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon's mission is teaching and research that contributes to a better conservation and enjoyment of property, including the most valuable and ancient Portuguese cultural heritage, which needs to be preserved for future generations.
"Equipped laboratories and workshops allow quality research in conservation science and its applications to the restoration. A network of national and international collaborations allows the development of exciting projects, of recognized quality, and create unique opportunities for internships and career Masters.
"DCR believes that the passion for research and enthusiasm for conservation and restoration of heritage should be shared with their students. So next school year, from the second semester, students will be asked to choose a lab / workshop, to join their team to participate in the activities of day-to-day as well as the innovative projects underway. Will formulate new ideas, how to acquire and process new data, challenge / question the boundaries of common sense, things never before thought out and apply them to better conserve, restore and appreciate works of art"
In addition the Master of Glass Art and Science is "a degree conferred to students of art and students of science by the Faculty of Sciences and Technology (Universidade Nova de Lisboa) and the Faculty of Fine Arts (Universidade de Lisboa)". This multidisciplinary program at VICARTE (The Research Unit "Glass and Ceramics for the Arts") offers a program that is not a conservation degree perl se but deals with the science and technology of glass in the context of art
"Gaia is currently one of the best private schools nationally, dedicated to the teaching of restoration and antiques. It has developed a system that allows teachers to train both professionals and people who want to come as amateurs to these activities. At the School of Conservation, Restoration and Antiques, Gaia offers two types of courses: Annual and case. All these courses can be taken independently, although the onward transmission in combination allows obtaining two degrees offered by the school: "
Swiss Conservation-Restoration Campus
The four partner schools of the Swiss CRC are the only institutions in Switzerland offering an education in conservation and in conservation-restoration at university-level. They established the Swiss Conservation-Restoration Campus in order to coordinate the different forms of collaboration in teaching and applied research and to build a powerful competences network at Federal level. Each institution is a centre for education and research in different fields of conservation-restoration.
Although closely associated under the national framework of the Swiss Conservation-Restoration Campus, each of the four sites profits from their cultural and linguistic location to offer a springboard for their students into a wider European context. In this way, Neuchâtel, Bern, Riggisberg and Lugano have developped fruitful didactic and research collaborations with their respective European neighbours.
The Swiss CRC partners schools:
Degree course in textile conservation/restoration
"The degree awarded upon completing the programme is a Master in Conservation-Restoration UAS, specialisation Textiles. The five-year degree course offers the qualification required by the Swiss and European professional associations in conservation-restoration for full independent professional practice in textile conservation and restoration."
Specialties: Archaeological and ethnological objects; Scientific, technical and horological objects
"The conservation objective for the preservation of cultural property. Its mission review and diagnostic analysis of cultural property and the property of the relevant documentation. The training is based on international ethics of conservation, which are intended to respect the original character of the object, its artistry, historical, scientific, spiritual or religious."
"The Swiss CRC coordinates the organization of master (sequence of modules, courses and blocks ECTS credits). Each school teaching areas defined based on the guidelines offered. The educational concept of HECR Arc based on partnership between our school "rather than academic" and heritage institutions. Collaborations are established in several ways: loans of objects in the workshops, in situ home for practical work of trainees and supervision for the implementation of dissertations."
MAS Advanced Modules Section: The MAS Segment gives students the know-how necessary to properly handle and preserve digital artworks and cultural artefacts from public or private collections. It provides support with questions concerning selection and helps develop digital collecting policies, teaches preventive safeguarding measures, the supervision of digital stabilisation and preservation processes and the development of sustainable decision-making procedures for the transmission of complex digital objects, such as digital artworks and cultural artefacts
Specialties: Architecture, furnishings and furniture; Paintings and sculptures; Books, graphic and photographic; objects; Modern materials and media
"The Master's degree programme in Conservation-Restoration trains conservators and restorers who can understand art and cultural artefacts in their material, expressive and historical complexity and record them methodically, evaluate findings scientifically, and engage with them in a preventive or remedial way. The wide-ranging academic and practical training is a prerequisite for practising the profession independently. Students can specialise in one of eight areas. The Master's degree emphasises curative conservation, restoration and interventions on objects."
"The objective of the Master's degree programme in Conservation-Restoration is to train conservators and restorers with a profound understanding of the material and expressive complexity of the works, surfaces, materials or media they are preserving, as well as the historical and contemporary production techniques and main degradation processes. Since the objects are usually of historical significance, mistakes have major consequences; at the same time, the objects` uniqueness often requires creative adaptations and developments of existing techniques for the task at hand. Care, attention to detail and patience are therefore key job requirements — and educational objectives — as much as innovation and an accurate assessment of the situation and one's own abilities."
Specialties: wall paintings, stone, stucco and architectural surfaces
"The course aims to train experts in knowledge, documentation and preservation of cultural heritage. Students are offered training complex and interdisciplinary able to combine science and the humanities, theoretical and operational capacity, with attention to the materials, artistic techniques, the state of conservation of the works, the degradation and the present understanding of their causes."
"The MSc in conservation and restoration offered by SUPSI within the Swiss Conservation-Restoration Campus (www.swiss-crc.ch) students specializing in the restoration of the wall paintings, stucco and stone surfaces."
See also these related resources:
- UKIC Training in Conservation: A Brief Guide to Full-Time Courses in the United Kingdom
- Training and Development Organisations in the UK and Ireland
- Cultural Heritage Learning Network
Cultural Heritage National Training Organisation (CHNTO)
Contact: Elli Moody
+44 20 7514 6302
Fax: +44 171 514 6310
Camberwell College of Arts
London SE5 8UF
"The BSc Conservation of Objects in Museums and Archaeology is designed as a professional training in conservation practice. Conservation involves the investigation, care and preservation of cultural material. If you like the freedom and challenge of developing your own ideas and approaches within a broad framework of science, culture, art and practical - the BSc Conservation of Objects in Museums and Archaeology may well be the degree subject for you. Rarely does a university degree contain such a wide range of subject areas. At Cardiff we focus on teaching a strong academic base, which is transferred into practice via practical work on cultural objects. Study and work take place in purpose-designed conservation laboratories. Work in class and lab links theory and practice and produces conservation graduates with a wide range of educational and life skills - more so than many more traditional degree schemes."
"Cardiff's Professional Conservation Masters of Science degree provides opportunities for qualified conservators and scientists to develop their primary training in professional conservation practice and to enhance their research skills. On the one hand, the MSc Professional Conservation is designed primarily for trained conservators. Thus, the Cardiff degree is different from other conservation masters schemes which are conversion courses aimed at students with non-conservation undergraduate degrees. On the other hand, the Cardiff MSc provides science graduates with the opportunity to utilise their training and to develop their specific research skills within conservation science.
"The design of the degree allows the course to satisfy both types of applicants. Core skills training is linked to a range of specialised options modules which fine-tune the degree towards conservation or conservation science. Using seminar-style teaching, the degree delivers important transferable skills, including communication techniques, public address and critical assessment, research report and essay writing; all are planned with the needs of the work place in mind."
"The masters programme in conservation practice will offer opportunities for graduates to train to become professional conservators equipped to operate in the museum and heritage sector. Alternatively, it can prepare graduates for further research and offers transferable skills in project and resource management, problem solving and communication for a wide range of careers."
"The Cardiff Masters of Science in Care of Collections provides opportunities for graduates from conservation and other disciplines to study preventive conservation and care of cultural collections. Applicants who already posses a conservation qualification can extend their original training while they study collections care. Students without a conservation qualification will acquire foundation knowledge about the structure and decay of materials and the museum environment.
"The aim of the MSc is vocational. The Care of Collections MSc is a qualification directly relevant to the activities of museums, historic houses and similar institutions. Seminars, lectures and assessed work aim to combine theoretical knowledge with realistic practical applications. The course will encourage students to develop their verbal and written communication skills. In this way the qualification will contribute to a student's portfolio of experience and qualifications which will be relevant when seeing work within the heritage sector. For individuals not seeking employment in this field, the MSc provides a stimulating and unusual taught master's scheme that embodies elements of art and science and includes a wide range of transferable skills."
"The Institute offers courses in two areas of conservation: easel paintings and wall paintings. Some six members of staff, practical conservators and scientific researchers work in the two well-equipped departments, and teach approximately twenty five students each year. The courses are intensive over a three year period, and employment prospects are good within this specialised field."
"Crick Smith Conservation is uniquely linked to the University of Lincoln Conservation Unit and whilst our business operates as a commercial enterprise we also undertake, offer and promote research opportunities. All members of the Crick Smith team tutor on a range of topics including Architectural Paint Research and Analysis across a range of study programmes within the Conservation Unit at the University. We also provide supervision for students undertaking independent research or those wishing to build upon skills and qualifications as a means of their Continued Professional Development (CPD). "At present the University offers courses at graduate and post graduate level in Conservation Studies. Negotiations with English Heritage are currently in progress with a view to establishing post graduate research opportunities with Crick Smith Conservation."
"The Cultural Heritage National Training Organisation (CHNTO) is recognised by the UK Government as the strategic training organisation for the museums, galleries and heritage sector in the UK. Formerly The Museum Training Institute (MTI), it provides advice about training and professional development. Cultural Heritage NTOs core functions are to:
- take the lead in developing qualifications based on national occupational standards;
- identify what skills are needed within the sector and how theose skills can be achieved;
- ensure that employers' views on education and training are heard.
Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Artefacts in Wood, Stone and Related Materials
The Conservation Studies course is a three-year, full-time course leading to a BA (Hons) degree which has recently been validated by the University of Central England, Birmingham.
The Conservation Studies course provides students with the necessary skills and knowledge to enable them to gain employment in an institution such as a museum, or in a private-sector workshop, and gives a good basis on which to build a future career in conservation or related areas. Many past students now hold posts in leading museums and conservation studios."
"The Hamilton Kerr Institute aims to train picture restorers to the highest standards; to ensure their understanding of the problems of picture conservation and restoration and to contribute to scientific, technical and art historical research. The Institute, a department of the Fitzwilliam Museum, provides conservation facilities for public and publicly shown collections. It was established in 1976 in response to recommendations made in 1972 by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Report on training in the conservation of paintings, with the additional aid of grants from the Gulbenkian Foundation, the Monument Trust, the Baring Foundation, the Pilgrim Trust, the Isaac Wolfson Foundation and the Esmée Fairbairn Trust."
"The Hamilton Kerr Institute is a leading centre for teaching and research in the Conservation of Fine Art. The three year Post Graduate Diploma provides a combination of academic teaching and supervised studio work. The Institute also offers internships to graduates of academic courses to gain further practical experience and an opportunity for research."
"The Diploma is a three year course in the conservation and restoration of easel paintings. The Diploma is awarded by the University of Cambridge.
The course is open to students with a first degree in fine art, art history or the natural sciences. Candidates with other degrees will be considered if they can demonstrate that they have a particular aptitude for the course.
After graduation, students are expected to undertake at least a further years study or internship in a conservation department in Britain or abroad. It is considered essential that students should have experience of different approaches to conservation problems.
"The Institute offers short courses on specific techniques and, space permitting, the opportunity for members of painting conservation staff employed in museum departments and elsewhere to work at the Institute on a painting with might require examination, analysis and treatment beyond the scope of facilities offered by their own institutions. Treatment of the painting would be carried out over a period of up to six months."
"The BSc (Hons) in Restoration & Conservation is a unique three-year full-time degree of long standing and high reputation specialising in the treatment of decorative wood and metal artifacts. In the final year there is a work placement, which lasts for a minimum of two months. Placement opportunities include the British Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum, Tate Gallery, Museum of London, Metropolitan Museum New York, in addition to the National Trust and prestigious private conservation workshops.
"Our contacts with the profession and the wider conservation community are without equal and students engage in a variety of live projects such as Strawberry Hill House. London is one of the centres of conservation excellence so our location is ideal.
"Conservation is a fascinating and varied profession, which uniquely combines materials' science, art history and craftsmanship. The course addresses all strands with vigour and has expert staff in all fields, many of whom are also in practice, at the forefront of the profession.
"BSc students will be part of a thriving conservation community at London Met with a healthy dialogue between courses such as FDA Furniture and the MA in Conservation. Our graduates have gone on to museum conservation and curatorial departments worldwide as well as in to private practice and the heritage industry in general."
"The focus of an MA by Project is a self-originated substantial body of independent work. The research project may be practice-based, or developed as a thesis. The project may involve the development of design(s), artwork(s), craftwork(s), artifact(s), article(s), musical instrument(s), or research on existing examples of the above, or processes for the production or development of the above, submitted as a body of practical work with accompanying reflective and critical report. Alternately, the research can be written up and submitted as a dissertation. It is undertaken by proposing a project and then carrying it through within a supportive and structured framework.
"The course welcomes applications concerned with the restoration or conservation of specific items, materials, processes or methods."
We particularly welcome research proposals which seek to engage with the other areas of study and practice within the College, and within the V&A.
For further information, please contact:
+44 207 590 4532
conservation [at] rca.ac.uk
Joanna Baden Department Administrator
"This interdisciplinary programme takes an innovative approach to teaching of 'hard' science subjects by taking cultural heritage as its context. The aim is to develop a holistic understanding of state-of-the-art science among researchers and practitioners in order to develop the science leaders of the future.
"Heritage science delivers intellectual access to cultural heritage by enhancing knowledge of conservation, interpretation, research and management. It offers ample opportunities to question and reflect on research in light of broader societal and environmental issues. By engaging in interdisciplinary discourse with other researchers, and with a wider diverse public, our graduates will gain the ability to engage with policy-makers.
"Heritage science research questions span the sciences and the arts. Therefore, this programme has been designed to be interdisciplinary. In order to support the wide variety of activities that relate to cultural heritage: conservation, access, research, interpretation and management, our programme draws on a palette of knowledge, from fundamental sciences (chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology) to arts and humanities (conservation, philosophy, ethics, history and art history), including economics, sociology, computer sciences and engineering."
"The innovative content and delivery of the course is designed to create a new generation of heritage leaders. Equipping the specialists of today with the skills to bring together the multi-disciplinary fields of heritage, the course will be very attractive to those with an aptitude for inter-disciplinary work who wish to make a difference in the heritage field.
"The course brings together all aspects of cultural heritage - historic buildings, collections, sites and landscapes combined with the best preventive conservation policies, projects, methodologies and practices. It is intended to imbue highly skilled and versatile practitioners with leadership and management qualities by bringing professionals and informed clients together in a learning environment to promote mutual understanding."
The Institute offers (as of Sept 2000)
"The Hamilton Kerr Institute aims to train picture restorers to the highest standards; to ensure their understanding of the problems of picture conservation and restoration and to contribute to scientific, technical and art historical research. The Institute, a department of the Fitzwilliam Museum, provides conservation facilities for public and publicly shown collections. It was established in 1976 in response to recommendations made in 1972 by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Report on training in the conservation of paintings, with the additional aid of grants from the Gulbenkian Foundation, the Monument Trust, the Baring Foundation, the Pilgrim Trust, the Isaac Wolfson Foundation and the Esmée Fairbairn Trust."
From Press release, Mar 24, 2010 Preserving the fabric of the nation's treasures for future generations, a new textile conservation centre is to be established at the University of Glasgow.
"The Textile Conservation Centre Foundation (TCCF) and the University of Glasgow have agreed to found the new teaching and research facility—the only resource of its kind in the UK—in the University's Robertson Building.
Professor Nick Pearce, Director of the Institute for Art History and Head of the Department of History of Art, University of Glasgow, said: "This is a tremendous opportunity both for the University and also for the conservation profession in Scotland, the UK and internationally. Expertise, facilities and the wealth of the collections make Glasgow the ideal place for the kind of interdisciplinary research and study which the centre will promote".
Peter Longman, Deputy Chairman of the Textile Conservation Centre Foundation said:
"There was such concern over the closure of the Textile Conservation Centre in Winchester that over the last 18 months we have been approached by several institutions anxious to work with us to continue aspects of its work. We have considered a number of options, but the combination of Glasgow with its world class University and History of Art Department and the unrivalled collections in and around the City proved an irresistible location.
"This is a unique opportunity to build on the UK's reputation in textile conservation training and related research; we look forward to contributing to its future success in Glasgow".
The new centre for Textile Conservation, History and Technical Art History will focus on multidisciplinary object-based teaching and research that encompasses conservation and the physical sciences as well as art history, dress and textile history. It will be the first time that conservation training has been undertaken in Scotland and, combined with the University's recent developments in technical art history, the new centre will have national and international impact.
The new Centre will inherit existing library intellectual property and analytical equipment from the TCCF, so that staff and future students will be able to draw on the key physical and intellectual assets built up over more than 30 years. Students will also have the opportunity to work with some of the best textile collections in the world held by Glasgow Museums, the National Museums of Scotland and the University's own Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery. New academic posts will be created and the Centre will work closely with the Foundation to establish a global research network in textile conservation, textile and dress history and technical art history.
The first student intake is planned for September 2010 offering a 2-year Masters in Textile Conservation and a 1-year Masters in Dress and Textile History as well as opportunities for doctoral research. These new courses will join the existing Masters programme in Technical Art History, Making and Meaning, as part of the Centre. The Foundation is also offering a limited number of bursaries in the first years of the textile conservation programme and a fundraising campaign is already underway to raise further funds for the new development including additional studentships and new research projects.
Potential students who would like to receive updates on the development and course details should email Ailsa Boyd at the University of Glasgow at: email@example.com.
"Lincoln is one of the largest centres for the study of Conservation and Restoration in the UK. With over 25 years' experience in this field and offering opportunities at all levels from undergraduate study to doctoral research.
"Conservation and Restoration links two areas of study—the craft practices of repair and the scientific principles of investigation and analysis. Our training is based on the understanding that students come from a range of backgrounds and need to build confidence gradually. Although we welcome previous qualification in science subjects, we recognise that many conservators are likely to come from an art-based background and not have studied science since GCSE level. Many conservation students in the past have admitted to a fear of studying science; your science tutor will take you through basic concepts and consistently explain the applied relevance of the topic under consideration.
"At Lincoln, you will join a thriving community of conservation study and practice and your experience will be enhanced by the close integration with the heritage and conservation professions through contact with visiting lecturers, part-time students employed in the sector and course advisors and supporters. Conservation tutors are all accredited conservators with a wide range experience in museums, the heritage sector and private practice. A team of highly qualified technical staff support students in taught classes and all-self directed practical work.
"Our programmes offer students the opportunity to work on a wide range of historic materials from museums, historic houses and private owners. Classes from the outset focus around the handling and discussion of objects from all periods from all over the world. We nurture practical confidence by offering students simulations, exercises and hands-on practical work on historical objects. You will work on a variety of different treatment projects, carefully selected to suit your stage in development. Students approaching the end of their studies are able to choose major project specialisms to suit their aspirations and intended career path."
"The mission of Northumbria is to foster an international community based on teaching excellence and outstanding student support in which learning and academic enquiry are both enriching and exciting.
"The Conservation Unit at Northumbria has recently expanded into a new Research Centre and from September 2005 will be offering a number of new programmes. These include:
- 3 year BA Fine Arts and Conservation Science
- 3 year BSc Fine Arts and Conservation Science
- 1 year MA Preventive Conservation - multi disciplinary
"The following programmes continue to be offered:
- MA Conservation of Fine Art - Paper/Easel Paintings
- PhD Research
- Triennial Conservation Conference
- Workshops in support of Continual Professional Development
Northumbria is one of the UK's leading teaching and learning institutions and the Conservation Unit is well known for its innovative and research-based practice. The Programmes offered have a careful balance of practise and theory that prepares graduates for a range of positions within professional practise. Visit our web site to learn more about our staff and the facilities in our conservation centre (web address). Alternatively write or telephone for a course brochure and application form from:
Conservation Burt Hall
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8St
+44 191 227 3250
Fax: +44 191 227 3250
"The MSc in Architectural Design for the Conservation of Built Heritage provides a robust theoretical and practical education in architectural conservation and the complexities of the built heritage, in a local and international context."
"The course is design-orientated and research-based, with a methodological, critical and interdisciplinary approach to architectural conservation, integrating the theoretical, technical and creative aspects of the architectural conservation project."
Diplomas are validated at postgraduate level by the University of Sussex.
Since 1971, West Dean College has been training and educating conservators, restorers and horologists to become professionals capable of the highest quality of care for historic and artistic objects. West Dean graduates are numbered among the leading practitioners in their fields throughout the world.
West Dean is unusual in the extent of individual tuition provided and in the time spent by students gaining practical experience. The study pattern is based around the need to provide the maximum opportunities for practical work, and lectures, visits and tutorials are incorporated into the timetable accordingly.
The Clocks, Metals, Ceramics and Furniture courses benefit from a special relationship with the British Antique Dealers' Association (BADA). The clocks programmes are recognised by the British Horological Institute (BHI).
(*subject to validation)
West Dean College
West Dean, Chichester, West Sussex, PO18 0QZ
+44 1243 811301
Fax: +44 1243 811343
International Academic Projects Ltd (IAP) was formed in London in 1989 as an international educational charity whose aims are to help promote education, training and research into conservation, archaeology, anthropology and other related fields.
The activities of International Academic Projects include the organisation and management of:
- A Professional Development Programme of short courses in Conservation, Collections Care, Archaeology and Museum Studies. The courses take place in the UK, USA, Europe, etc.
- A Distant Learning Programme - Chemistry For Conservators
- Worldwide Consultancy in the Conservation of Antiquities and related fields including the setting up of courses abroad for other organisations.
The London School of Picture & Frame Conservation was established in order to provide a formal training for Picture Conservators. It is currently one of the only schools in the UK to offer a nationally recognised qualification in picture conservation (apart from the very few postgraduate places available). The focus is on easel and panel paintings, frames and polychrome statues.
The focus of the school's training programme is a professional training through both theoretical and practical work as well as group activities, independent research and tutorials with specialists in various fields. A key element is the exchange of ideas on the methodology of conservation used by conservators in other countries.
The school is based in historic Richmond-upon-Thames, ideally located with easy access through the London underground to central London and its many museums and art galleries, and at the same time close to Heathrow Airport and the motorway network.
The courses are open to students over the age of 18 of all nationalities. A good basic education at a secondary school or equivalent level is essential, as is clear motivation regarding choice of course. Students have no need of any formal qualifications to be accepted by the school. Applicants must have an ability to learn practical skills, and need to have patience and be able to pay attention to detail. A knowledge of Art History and drawing skills are both an advantage but not essential.
The lessons are generally 5 hours in length, starting at 9.30 in the morning with a half hour break for lunch which the students normally have together, and finish at 3 in the afternoon. The courses are part time and most students attend once per week, although it is possible to do more.
Students are continually assessed during the course of the year, and produce a portfolio of work for final assessment at the end of the year. An external verifier visits the school during the year to check on the progress of the students. The assessment is normally carried out by an external assessor.
The teaching staff are all specialists in their own field, selected for their enthusiasm and ability. the School has a policy of employing teachers who are part-time, as we believe that those who pursue their professional careers alongside their teaching have more to offer, both from keeping abreast with current techniques and from contacts with their peers.
It is a deliberate policy of the School that class size is kept to a level where all the students may have the full benefit of personal attention. In general the maximum number of students in any one class is eight.
The course carries the award Master of Science, with alternative awards of a Post Graduate Diploma and a Post Graduate Certificate over a period of one year full time or up to four years on a part time basis, depending on the background of the students. It will also be possible to take the modules as free standing units in order to accommodate both full-time, part-time and mature students. This course in the Conservation of Industrial Heritage Artefacts is a unique blend of theoretical and practical study, setting it apart from other industrial archaeological courses.
The course will be taught at both the British Engineerium in Hove and the University of Brighton, together with locations where current conservation contracts are in progress.
Saving the Stones is a three or five month training internship in conservation and historic preservation. The program is intended to give recent graduates and young professionals in the fields of archaeology, architecture, design, history, art, geography, and other related subjects, the opportunity to apply their skills and knowledge, hands-on in the field of conservation.
"Initiated by the International Conservation Center ż Cittŕ di Roma, in Old Acre, Israel. Saving the Stones is a joint project of MASA Israel Journey, Israel Antiquities Authority, the Old Acre Development Company, and the Akko Municipality."
"Held at the campus of the Center in the inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site of Old Acre, this training internship provides intimate access to the veritable living laboratory for the study and application of practical heritage conservation methods and skills."
"UCL, in partnership with Qatar Foundation and Qatar Museums Authority has created UCL Qatar, a center of excellence within the Gulf region for the study of cultural heritage, conservation, archaeology and museum studies. The two-year MSc Conservation Studies programme allows for a number of specializations including objects (metals, stone, ceramics), textiles and archaeological sites. All programmes have a unique emphasis on the Middle East region and include extended placements at sites and in museums."
While not conservation training programs per se, the following should be of interest to conservators and allied professionals
Distance learning opportunies are offered in topics including: Principles and Practices in Heritage Conservation, Museum Principles and Practices, Collections Management Conserving Historic Structures
The School offers the following courses:
"BSc Honours Degree in International Disaster Engineering and Management, the BSC Honours Degree Development and Health in Disaster Management and the MSc Degree in Disaster Management. We believe the undergraduate course to be unique, and all our courses adopt a multi-disciplinary approach and cover many aspects of disaster management."
The Special Collections program is intended to prepare students for careers in rare books and manuscripts librarianship and archives administration. Professional opportunities for such graduates exist in rare books, archives, preservation, historic conservation, manuscript administration, and related areas of libraries, museums, and other organizations.
"Thomas & Associates, Inc. develops timely and cost-effective training programs to address current issues in museums and art businesses." Workshops/programs include: Art Handling Training Program and Manual; Leadership and Management Skills for Arts Professionals; Film, Video and New Media; Creative Recruiting for Museums and Art Businesses"
"The Syllabus Finder is an experiment in the fledgling world of web services, where computers talk directly to each other to try to solve complicated problems or complete tasks that would be difficult to do otherwise. In this case, the computers that talk to each other are the Center for History and New Media's web server and Google's web server. The Syllabus Finder sends an optimized, specially packaged version of your query to Google, which sends back information and possible matches. The Syllabus Finder then processes this information and combines it with simultaneous searches on in-house databases (e.g., a database of educational institutions, so it can tell you which university or college a syllabus comes from). It also has algorithms that try to extract additional information from matching syllabi, such as assigned books. When this complex process is finished, the Syllabus Finder displays all of the information it has found."
Timestamp: Tuesday, 27-Sep-2016 13:28:44 PDT
Retrieved: Thursday, 18-Apr-2019 18:31:01 GMT